2019-01-07 09:21 供稿单位: 青岛朗阁 责编:青岛朗阁 浏览次
GRE Test Review (Pool)
Section：VERBAL- Reading Comprehension
Arranger: Tammy Sun
Early naturalists believed two species of beaver lived in North America: dam beavers and bank beavers. The bank species was thought to resemble the muskrat in behavior, living in burrows or lodges and unable to build dams. In fact, dams are primarily a strategy for dealing with annual variations in water levels. If water levels fall in summer, as they do in most of North America, then beavers lodge entrances may be exposed. With stabilized water levels, their homes are much safer. Along deep rivers, where bank beavers are found, this problem seldom arises. But these beavers do know how to build dams, and do so if the need arises, as may occur if they are forced to relocate after felling and consuming all nearby trees.
1. The passage provides support for which of the following statements about beaver dams?
A. One important function of these dams is to protect beavers homes.
B. Most are built prior to burrow construction.
C. They are found mostly along deep rivers.
D. They are routinely abandoned as nearby forests are depleted.
E. They mainly protect beavers from rising water levels.
2. The passage implies which of the following about beavers?
A. Bank beavers are unable to successfully compete with dam beavers when resources become scarce.
B. Differences in dam-building behavior among beavers do not necessarily imply multiple beaver species.
C. Building dams eventually causes beavers to deplete nearby resources.
D. When conditions permit, beavers are more likely to build dams than burrows or lodges.
E. In beavers, dam-building is an acquired rather than an innate skill.
文章讲的是早期自然主义者认为beaver可以根据是否会筑坝分为dam beavers and bank beavers. 然而作者认为bank beavers会筑坝，只是没有必要罢了。注意in fact在GRE 阅读中通常表示转折。
考频：2018.02.02, 2018.07.05, 2018.12.14
An alarming number of Mediterranean monk seals, an endangered species, have recently died. Postmortem analysis showed the presence of an as yet unidentified virus, as well as evidence of a know bacterial toxin. Seawater samples from the area where the seals died did contain unusually high concentrations of the toxic bacterium. Therefore, although both viruses and bacterial toxins can kill seals, it is more likely that these deaths were the result of the bacterial toxin.
1.Which of the following, if true, provides additional evidence to support the conclusion?
A. Viruses are much more difficult to identify in postmortem analysis than bacteria are.
B. Mediterranean monk seals are the only species of seal in the area where the bacterium was found.
C. The bacterium is almost always present in the water in at least small concentrations.
D. Nearly all the recent deaths were among adult seals, but young seals are far more susceptible to viruses than are adult seals.
E. Several years ago, a large number of monk seals died in the same area as a result of exposure to a different bacterial toxin.
In 1995 the Galileo spacecraft captured data about Jupiters atmosphere—namely, the absence of most of the predicted atmospheric water—that challenged prevailing theories about Jupiters structure. The unexpectedness of this finding fits a larger pattern in which theories about planetary composition and dynamics have failed to predict the realities discovered through space exploration. Instead of normal planets whose composition could be predicted by theory, the planets populating our solar system are unique individuals whose chemical and tectonic identities were created through numerous contingent events. One implication of this is that although the universe undoubtedly holds other planetary systems, the duplication of the sequence that produced our solar system and the development of life on Earth is highly unlikely.
Recently planetary scientists have suggested that the external preconditions for the development of Earth’s biosphere probably included four paramount contingencies. First, a climate conducive to life on Earth depends upon the extraordinarily narrow orbital parameters that define a continuously habitable zone where water can exist in a liquid state. If Earths orbit were only 5 percent smaller than it is, temperatures during the early stages of Earths history would have been high enough to vaporize the oceans. If the Earth-Sun distance were as little as 1 percent larger, runaway glaciation on Earth about 2 billion years ago would have caused the oceans to freeze and remain frozen to this day. Second, Jupiter’s enormous mass prevents most Sun-bound comets from penetrating the inner solar system. It has been estimated that without this shield, Earth would have experienced bombardment by comet-sized impactors a thousand times more frequently than has actually been recorded during geological time. Even if Earth‘s surface were not actually sterilized by this bombardment, it is unlikely that any but the most primitive life-forms could have survived. This suggests that only planetary systems containing both terrestrial planets like Earth and gas giants like Jupiter might be capable of sustaining complex life-forms.
Third, the gravitational shield of the giant outer planets, while highly efficient, must occasionally fail to protect Earth. Paradoxically, while the temperatures required for liquid water exist only in the inner solar system, the key building blocks of life, including water itself, occur primarily beyond the asteroid belt. Thus the evolution of life has depended on a frequency of cometary impacts sufficient to convey water, as well as carbon and nitrogen, from these distant regions of the solar system to Earth while stopping short of an impact magnitude that would destroy the atmosphere and oceans.
Finally, Earth’s unique and massive satellite, the Moon, plays a crucial role in stabilizing the obliquity of Earth’s rotational axis, this obliquity creates the terrestrial seasonality so important to the evolution and diversity of life. Mars, in contrast, has a wildly oscillating tilt and chaotic seasonality, while Venus, rotating slowly backward, has virtually no seasonality at all.
1. The passage is primarily concerned with
A. enumerating conditions that may have been necessary for a particular development
B. outlining the conditions under which scientists may be able to predict certain events
C. explaining how a particular finding affected scientists understanding of a phenomenon
D. suggesting reasons why a particular outcome was more likely to occur than other possible outcomes
E. assessing the relative significance of factors that contributed to a particular occurrence
2. It can be inferred from the passage that the planetary scientists would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements concerning the development of complex life forms on Earth?
A. It might have occurred earlier in Earths history if cometary impacts had been less frequent than they were.
B. It could have occurred if Earths orbit were 1 percent larger than it is but not if Earths orbit were 5 percent smaller
C. It probably follows a pattern common on other terrestrial planets that occupy planetary systems containing gas giants.
D. Its dependence on the effect that Jupiters gravitational shield has on Earth was difficult to recognize prior to 1995.
E. It has been contingent on conditions elsewhere in Earths solar system as well as on conditions on Earth itself.
3. The author of the passage most likely mentions Mars oscillating tilt primarily in order to
A. provide evidence for a proposition about the potential effects of cometary impacts
B. emphasize the absence from our solar system of normal planets
C. contrast the rotational axis of Mars with that of Venus
D. characterize the role of other planets in the solar system in earths development
E. emphasize the importance of the Moon to the development of life on Earth
4. The passage suggests each of the following about water on Earth EXCEPT:
A. It was conveyed to Earth by comets.
B. It appeared on Earth earlier than did carbon and nitrogen.
C. Its existence in a liquid state is contingent on Earths orbital parameters.
D. Much of it came from a part of the solar system where water cannot exist in a liquid state.
E. It is unlikely that there would be much of it available to support life if the gravitational shield of the outer planets did not limit the frequency with which comets strike Earth.
答案：A E E B
2018年度考频：2018.09.28, 2018.10.21, 2018.11.18, 2018.11.23
Writing about nineteenth-century women’s travel writing, Lila Harper notes that the four women she discussed used their own names, in contrast with the nineteenth-century female novelists who either published anonymously or used male pseudonyms. The novelists doubtlessly realized that they were breaking boundaries, whereas three of the four daring, solitary travelers espoused traditional values, eschewing radicalism and women’s movements. Whereas the female novelists criticized their society, the female travelers seemed content to leave society as it was while accomplishing their own liberation. In other words, they lived a contradiction. For the subjects of Harper’s study, solitude in both the private and public spheres prevailed—a solitude that conferred authority, hitherto a male prerogative, but that also precluded any collective action or female solidarity.
1. Which of the following best characterizes the “contradiction” that the author refers to?
A. The subjects of Harper’s study enjoyed solitude, and yet as travelers they were often among people.
B. Nineteenth-century travel writers used their own names, but nineteenth-century novelists used pseudonyms.
C. Women’s movements in the nineteenth-century were not very radical in comparison with those of the twentieth-century.
D. Nineteenth-century female novelists thought they were breaking boundaries, but it was the nineteenth-century women who traveled alone who were really doing so.
E. While traveling alone in the nineteenth-century was considered a radical act for a woman, the nineteenth-century solitary female travelers generally held conventional views.
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
2. According to the passage, solitude had which of the following effects for the nineteenth century female travelers?
A. It conferred an authority typically enjoyed only by men.
B. It prevented formation of alliances with other women.
C. It relieved peer pressure to conform to traditional values.
Analysis 答案： E AB
文学类题材。第一题注意定位“contradiction”这个词，通过“in other words”, 得知答案一定在这句之前。
2018年度考频：2018.01.05, 2018.03.30, 2018.09.28, 2018.10.26
Biologist know that some marine algae can create clouds by producing the gas dimethyl sulphide (DMS), which reacts with oxygen in air above the sea to form solid particles. These particles provide a surface on which water vapor can condense to form clouds. Lovelock contends that this process is part of global climatic-control system. According to Lovelock, Earth acts like a super organism, with all its biological and physical systems cooperating to keep it healthy. He hypothesized that warmer conditions increase algal activity and DMS output, seeding more clouds, which cool the planet by blocking out the Sun. Then, as the climate cools, algal activity and DMS level decrease and the cycle continues. In response to biologists who question how organisms presumably working for their own selfish ends could have evolved to behave in a way that benefits not only the planet but the organisms as well, Lovelock points out that cooling benefits the algae, which remain at the ocean surface, because it allows the cooled upper layers of the ocean to sink, and then the circulating water carries nutrients upward from the depths below. Algae may also benefit from nitrogen raining down from clouds they have helped to form.
1. According to the passage, which of the following occurs as a result of cooling in the upper layers of the ocean?
A. The concentration of oxygen in the air above the ocean’s surface decreases.
B. The concentration of DMS in the air above the ocean’s surface increases.
C. The nutrient supply at the surface of the ocean is replenished.
D. Cloud formation increases over the ocean.
E. Marine algae make more efficient use of nutrients.
2. Which of the following is most similar to the role played by marine algae in the global climate control system proposed by Lovelock?
A. a fan that continually replaces stale air in a room with fresh air from outside.
B. a thermostat that automatically controls an air-conditioning system.
C. an insulating blanket that retains heat.
D. a filter used to purify water.
E. a dehumidifier that constantly removes moisture from the air in a room.
3. The passage mentions the possible benefit to algae of nitrogen falling down in the rain most likely in order to
A. provide support for Lovelock’s response to an objection mentioned in the passage.
B. suggest that the climatic effects of DMS production have been underestimated.
C. acknowledge that Lovelock’s hypothesis is based in part on speculation.
D. demonstrate that DMS production alters the planet in more than one way.
E. assert that algae are the sole beneficiaries of DMS production.
Analysis 答案：C B A
Most seismologists assume that following a major earthquake and its aftershocks, the fault (a break in Earth’s crust where pressure can trigger an earthquake) will remain quiet until stresses have time to rebuild, typically over hundreds or thousands of years. Recent evidence of subtle interactions between earthquakes may overturn this assumption, however. According to the stress-triggering hypothesis, faults are unexpectedly responsive to subtle stresses they acquire as neighboring faults shift. Rather than simply dissipating, stress relieved during an earthquake travels along the fault, concentrating in sites nearby; even the smallest additional stresses may then trigger another quake along the fault or on a nearby fault. Although scientists have long viewed such subtle interactions as nonexistent, the hypothesis has explained the location and frequency of earthquakes following several destructive quakes in California, Japan, and Turkey.
1.According to the passage, which of the following is an assumption that may be invalidated by recent seismological evidence?
A. Earthquakes are caused by stresses building up in faults within Earth’s crust.
B. Most major earthquakes can be predicted with reasonable accuracy.
C. Faults are highly responsive to even minor stresses in neighboring faults.
D. Most major earthquakes are followed by predictable aftershocks.
E. A fault that has resulted in a major earthquake becomes quiet for a long period.
For the following question, consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
2. The passage suggests that most seismologists believe which of the following about fault stresses?
A. They are dissipated when they result in an earthquake.
B. They are transferred between neighboring faults.
C. They will not cause a major earthquake along the same fault in the space of a few years.
Analysis 答案：E AC
Some historians question the widely held belief that continually improving education led to gradual African American empowerment in the southern United States from the late nineteenth century through the mid-twentieth century. They note that the development of Black educational institutions in the segregated South was never rapid or steady: disparities between Black and White schools sometimes grew in the early decades of the twentieth century. And African Americans’ educational gains did not bring commensurate economic gains. Starting in the 1940s, even as Black and White schools in the South moved steadily toward equality, Black southerners remained politically marginalized and experienced systematic job discrimination. Although Black schools had achieved near parity with White schools in per capita spending and teachers’ salaries by 1965, African Americans’ income still lagged behind that of Whites. Nonetheless, educational progress did contribute toward economic and political empowerment. African Americans’ campaigns to support Black schools fostered a sense of community, nurtured political determination, and often increased literacy. More significantly, politically outspoken Black newspapers achieved record circulation during the 1940s, just as the literacy rate among African Americans approached 90 percent. Finally, the leadership of the Civil Rights movement of the 1960s was composed largely of graduates of Black colleges.
1. The author of the passage refers to the fact that “disparities between Black and White schools sometimes grew in the early decades of the twentieth century” most likely in order to
A. support the argument that the economic struggles of southern Blacks were largely due to educational inequalities
B. give an example of the differences between Black schools in the early part of the twentieth century and Black schools starting in the 1940s
C. illustrate the unevenness of the progress made by Black schools in the southern United States
D. help explain why Black remained politically marginalized and experienced systematic job discrimination in the segregated South
E. provide evidence that educational progress was a precondition for economic progress in the segregated South
2. Which of the following best describes the purpose of the highlighted sentence?
A. It clarifies a point introduced in the preceding sentence.
B. It reiterates a point introduced in the first sentence of the passage.
C. It questions the accuracy of some of the evidence used to support the argument of the historians.
D. It introduces a perspective that runs contrary to the view of those who endorse the “belief.”
E. It qualifies the interpretation made by the historians.
3.The passage suggests which of the following about the Civil Rights movement?
A. It gave rise to a rapid increase in the number of Black newspapers published in the South.
B. Its political effectiveness was greatly enhanced by the increased circulation of Black newspapers.
C. Its leadership benefited from improvements in education for African Americans.
D. It was the force primarily responsible for increasing per capita spending in Black schools.
E. It was responsible for changing many historians’ view of the relation between education and African American empowerment.
Analysis 答案：C E C
2018年度考频：2018.03.30, 2018.04.28, 2018.05.13, 2018.10.21, 2018.11.03
RECAP 此次GRE阅读考试中了不少机经中的篇目。难度尚可， 大家要注意把握逻辑关系，并且细心定位细节题。