2019-01-30 09:40 供稿单位: 青岛朗阁 责编:青岛朗阁 浏览次
GRE Test Review (Pool)
Section：VERBAL- Reading Comprehension
Arranger: Tammy Sun
An alarming number of Mediterranean monk seals, an endangered species, have recently died. Postmortem analysis showed the presence of an as yet unidentified virus, as well as evidence of a know bacterial toxin. Seawater samples from the area where the seals died did contain unusually high concentrations of the toxic bacterium. Therefore, although both viruses and bacterial toxins can kill seals, it is more likely that these deaths were the result of the bacterial toxin.
1.Which of the following, if true, provides additional evidence to support the conclusion?
A. Viruses are much more difficult to identify in postmortem analysis than bacteria are.
B. Mediterranean monk seals are the only species of seal in the area where the bacterium was found.
C. The bacterium is almost always present in the water in at least small concentrations.
D. Nearly all the recent deaths were among adult seals, but young seals are far more susceptible to viruses than are adult seals.
E. Several years ago, a large number of monk seals died in the same area as a result of exposure to a different bacterial toxin.
A divide between aesthetic and technical considerations has played a crucial role in mapmaking and cartographic scholarship. Since nineteenth century cartographers, for instance, understood themselves as technicians who did not care about visual effects, while others saw themselves as landscape painters. That dichotomy structured the discipline of the history of cartography. Until the 1980s, in what Blakemore and Harley called “the Old is Beautiful Paradigm,” scholars largely focused on maps made before 1800, marveling at their beauty and sometimes regretting the decline of the pre-technical age. Early mapmaking was considered art while modern cartography was located within the realm of engineering utility. Alpers, however, has argued that this boundary would have puzzled mapmakers in the seventeenth century, because they considered themselves to be visual engineers.
1. According to the passage, Alpers would say that the assumptions underlying the “paradigm” were
A. inconsistent with the way some mapmakers prior to 1800 understand their own work
B. dependent on a seventeenth-century conception of mapmaking visual engineering
C. unconcerned with the difference between the aesthetic and technical questions of mapmaking
D. insensitive to divisions among cartographers working in the period after 1800
E. supported by the demonstrable technical superiority of mapmaking made after 1800
2. It can be inferred from the passage that, beginning in the 1980s, historians of cartography
A. placed greater emphasis on the beauty of maps made after 1800
B. expanded their range of study to include more material created after 1800
C. grew more sensitive to the way mapmakers prior to 1800 conceived of their work
D. came to see the visual details of maps as aesthetic objects rather than practical cartographic aids
E. reduced the attention they paid to the technical aspects of mapmaking
Shoreland County recently purchased an area of wilderness land in the county to prevent it from being developed. In doing so, the county has forfeited all future property taxes on this land. Property taxes are assessed on market value, and if developed, the land would have contributed significantly to the county’s overall annual tax revenue. Because of the purchase, therefore, overall annual tax revenue will be lower than it would have been if development had occurred.
1.Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
A. The money the county would have had to expend for services to residences or industry developed on the wilderness land would have exceeded the tax revenue from the developed land.
B. The market value of undeveloped properties in Shoreland County will not increase significantly in the foreseeable future.
C. The property taxes received by Shoreland County from the previous owners of the wilderness area were insignificant relative to the county’s overall annual tax revenue.
D. Land near the area bought by the county will not increase significantly in market value as a result of being near wilderness that is protected from development.
E. Shoreland County will not in the foreseeable future prevent the development of any other land in the county.
前提条件类逻辑单题。文中说的是the county’s overall annual tax revenue，考虑的是整个县，所以选项中只有D考虑到了除了这块地之外的其他地。
Most seismologists assume that following a major earthquake and its aftershocks, the fault (a break in Earth’s crust where pressure can trigger an earthquake) will remain quiet until stresses have time to rebuild, typically over hundreds or thousands of years. Recent evidence of subtle interactions between earthquakes may overturn this assumption, however. According to the stress-triggering hypothesis, faults are unexpectedly responsive to subtle stresses they acquire as neighboring faults shift. Rather than simply dissipating, stress relieved during an earthquake travels along the fault, concentrating in sites nearby; even the smallest additional stresses may then trigger another quake along the fault or on a nearby fault. Although scientists have long viewed such subtle interactions as nonexistent, the hypothesis has explained the location and frequency of earthquakes following several destructive quakes in California, Japan, and Turkey.
1. According to the passage, which of the following is an assumption that may be invalidated by recent seismological evidence?
A. Earthquakes are caused by stresses building up in faults within Earth’s crust.
B. Most major earthquakes can be predicted with reasonable accuracy.
C. Faults are highly responsive to even minor stresses in neighboring faults.
D. Most major earthquakes are followed by predictable aftershocks.
E. A fault that has resulted in a major earthquake becomes quiet for a long period.
For the following question, consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
2.The passage suggests that most seismologists believe which of the following about fault stresses?
A. They are dissipated when they result in an earthquake.
B. They are transferred between neighboring faults.
C. They will not cause a major earthquake along the same fault in the space of a few years.
Analysis 答案： E AC
本年度考频: 2019.01.04, 2019.01.27
For most of the twentieth century, scholars generally accepted the proposition that nations are enduring entities that predated the rise of modern nation-states and that provided the social and cultural foundations of the state. This perspective has certainly been applied to Korea; most historians have assumed that the Korean nation has existed since the dawn of historical time. In recent years, however, Western scholars have questioned the idea of the nation as an enduring entity. Both Gellner and Anderson have argued, in their studies of European, Latin American, and Southeast Asian cases, that the nation is strictly a modern phenomenon, a forging of a common sense of identity among previously disparate social groups through the propagandizing efforts of activities of the modern state. In short, it was the state that created the nation, not the other way around.
Younger Koreanists, with Em prominent among them, have begun to apply this approach to Korea. These scholars, noting the isolated nature of village life in premodern Korea and the sharp difference in regional dialects, suggest that ordinary villagers could not possibly have thought of themselves as fellow countrymen of villagers in other regions. These scholars also not the elites, conversely, often had outward-looking, universalistic orientations, as did aristocracies elsewhere, such as in premodern Europe. Finally, they observe that the very word for “nation” in Korean, minjok, is a neologism first employed by Japanese scholars as translation of the Western concept and that it was first appropriated by Korean activists in the early twentieth century. They argue, therefore, that a Korean “nation” came into being only after that time.
In short, in the case of Korea we have an argument between “primordialists”, who contend that nations are natural and universal units of history, and “modernists”, who assert that nations are historically contingent products of modernity. The positions of both groups seem problematic. It seems unlikely that in the seventh century the peoples of the warring states of Koguryo, Peakche, and Shilla all thought of themselves as members of a larger “Korean” collectivity. On the other hand, the inhabitants of the Korean peninsula had a much longer history —well over one thousand years—as a unified political collectivity than did the peoples studied by Gellner and Anderson. Not only does the remarkable endurance of the Korean state imply some sort of social and cultural basis for that unity, but the nature of the premodern Korean state as a centralized bureaucratic polity also suggests the possibility that the organizational activities of the state may have created a homogenous collectivity with a sense of shared identity much earlier than happened in the countries of western Europe that provide the model for “modernist” scholarship.
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. evaluate two competing views regarding the origin of the Korean nation
B. rebut a controversial perspective on the origin of the Korean nation
C. question the idea of the Korean nation as an enduring entity
D. consider the influence of the modernist positon on younger Koreanists
E. explain some of the unique features of the Korean nation
2. Select the sentence in the third paragraph that provides some information that supports the position of younger Koreanists regarding the creation of the Korean nation.
3.The author would probably agree with which of the following statements regarding the work of Gellner and of Anderson?
A. Neither Gellner’s nor Anderson’s work has had a significant influence on the study of the Korean nation.
B. Their argument that the nation is a strictly modern phenomenon does not hold in the case of Korea.
C. Both of them have downplayed the propagandizing efforts of Korean intellectuals as a means of forging a Korean identity.
D. Both of them have exaggerated the homogenizing impact of the state as a factor in the case of nations.
E. Both them have overestimated the extent to which disparate social groups find a common sense of identity through belonging to the same nation.
4. According to the author of the passage, a difference between Korea and the “European, Latin American, and Southeast Asian cases” has to do with
A. the extent of the differences among various regional dialects prior to the establishment of a national language
B. the number of disparate social groups that existed prior to the creation of a national identity
C. when a nationally unified political entity came into existence
D. whether the bureaucratic state played a role in the creation of the nation
E. the extent to which the creation of the nation fostered significantly greater social and cultural unity
Analysis 答案：A B C
In 1995, after an absence of nearly 70 years, wolves were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park. During the wolf-free era, heavy browsing of aspen trees by elk populations spelled doom not only for trees themselves but for a host of other creatures dependent on them, such as beavers, whose population in Yellowstone crashed after wolves were removed. Without beavers to create ponds, wetland ecosystems--aquatic plants, amphibians, birds--were devastated. When wolves returned, grazers and browsers resumed normal patterns of behaviors, preferring safer, open areas over the dense cover and streamsides where carnivores can lurk. Keeping elk wary and on the move, wolves gave aspen and other young trees the opportunity to grow and become reestablished.
1. The passage asserts which of the following about beaver populations in Yellowstone?
A. They have rebounded since the reintroduction of wolves.
B. They were adversely affected by the feeding habits of elk population.
C. They increased during the period when wolves disappeared from the park.
D. They have historically had an adverse effect on the park's wetland ecosystems.
E. They are essential to the health of the park's aspen trees.
2. The author would most likely agree with which of the following claims about the reintroduction of wolves to Yellowstone?
A. It indirectly harmed some of the park's amphibian habitats
B. It reduced the number of elk feeding along streamsides
C. It led to greater species diversity among the park's grazers and browsers.
D. It significantly increased competition for food among the park's carnivores.
E. It fostered the resurgence of tree species that once flourished in the park's open areas.
Analysis 答案：B B
生物学文章。第2题定位回原文“When wolves returned…”