2019-02-25 09:19 供稿单位: 未知 责编:青岛朗阁 浏览次
GRE Test Review (Pool)
Section：VERBAL- Reading Comprehension
Arranger: Sherry Zhang
An alarming number of Mediterranean monk seals, an endangered species, have recently died. Postmortem analysis showed the presence of an as yet unidentified virus, as well as evidence of a know bacterial toxin. Seawater samples from the area where the seals died did contain unusually high concentrations of the toxic bacterium. Therefore, although both viruses and bacterial toxins can kill seals, it is more likely that these deaths were the result of the bacterial toxin.
Which of the following, if true, provides additional evidence to support the conclusion?
A. Viruses are much more difficult to identify in postmortem analysis than bacteria are.
B. Mediterranean monk seals are the only species of seal in the area where the bacterium was found.
C. The bacterium is almost always present in the water in at least small concentrations.
D. Nearly all the recent deaths were among adult seals, but young seals are far more susceptible to viruses than are adult seals.
E. Several years ago, a large number of monk seals died in the same area as a result of exposure to a different bacterial toxin.
考频：2018.11.23 2019.1.4 2019.1.27
Cuts that need to be held closed in order to heal properly have generally been held closed with stitches. However, pressure to reduce medical costs is mounting. Consequently, it is likely that a newly developed adhesive will become the routine method of holding most types of cuts closed. The new adhesive holds most types of cuts closed as well as stitches do, and the cost of applying it is comparable to that of closing cuts with stitches. But whereas stitches must generally be removed by medical personnel after the cut has healed, the adhesive simply wears off. Thus, for any cut that the adhesive can hold closed as well as stitches can, it is more economical to use the adhesive.
In the argument given, the two highlighted portions play which of the following roles?
A. The first is a claim that the argument disputes; the second provides evidence against that disputed claim.
B. The first is a claim that is used as supporting evidence for the main conclusion of the argument; the second is that main conclusion.
C. The first is a claim that is used as supporting evidence for the main conclusion of the argument; the second is a conclusion that is drawn in order to support that main conclusion.
D. The first introduces a practice about which the argument makes a prediction, the second is a conclusion based on that prediction.
E. The first introduces a practice about which the argument makes a prediction; the second is an assessment that is used to support that prediction.
A primary value in early twentieth-century Modernist architectural theory was that of “truth to materials”, that is, it was essential that a building’s design express the “natural” character of the building materials. This emphasis would have puzzled the architects of the Italian Renaissance (sixteenth century), a period widely regarded as the apex of architectural achievement, for Renaissance architects’ designs were determined only minimally by the materials employed. The diversity of Italy’s natural resources provided Renaissance architects with a wide variety of building materials. The builders of the Pitti Palace (1558-1570) used great blocks of Tuscan stone, just as Etruscans living in the same part of Italy had done some twenty centuries earlier. Had the Florentine Renaissance builders aped the Etruscan style, it might be said that their materials determined their style, since Etruscan style matched the massive, stark, solid character of the stone. But these same materials, which so suited the massive Etruscan style, were effectively used by the Florentine Renaissance to create the most delicate and graceful of styles.
A similar example of identical materials used in contrasting styles characterizes the treatment of Roman travertine marble. When Baroque architects of seventeenth-century Rome desired a massive and solid monumental effect, they turned to travertine marble, whose “natural effect” is, indeed, that of spacious breadth and lofty, smoothly rounded surfaces. Yet during the Renaissance, this same material had been used against its “nature,” in the Florentine tradition of sharply carved detail. Italian Renaissance architecture was shaped less by the “nature” of the materials at hand than by the artistic milieu of Renaissance Italy, which included painting and sculpture as well as architecture. While Roman travertine marble may have lent itself to fine carving, the Florentine passion for fine detail is no less marked in Florentine Renaissance painting than in Florentine Renaissance architecture. Similarly, in the next century, the emphasis on shading and corporeal density in Baroque painting mirrored the use of Roman travertine marble in Baroque architecture to create broad shadow and powerful masses.
The ingenuity of Renaissance architects extended beyond merely using a material in a way not suggested by its outward natural appearance. If they conceived a design that called for a certain material either too expensive or difficult to work with, they made no scruple about imitating that material. Their marbles and their stones are often actually painted stucco. When the blocks of masonry with which they built were not in scale with the projected scheme, the real joints were concealed and false ones introduced. Nor were these practices confined, as some scholars insist, to the later and supposedly decadent phases of the art. Material, then, was utterly subservient to style.
1. The passage is primarily concerned with
A. explaining the differences in quality among different kinds of building materials
B. discussing the differences among Etruscan, Florentine Renaissance, and Roman Baroque architecture
C. describing how different materials influenced architecture in different cities
D. describing the manner in which Renaissance architects often resorted to artificial materials and illusionistic effects
E. demonstrating the attitude of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Italian architects toward the use of building materials
E. demonstrating the attitude of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Italian architects towards the use of building materials.
2. It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes that which of the following is true of painting and architecture of the Baroque era?
A. Both emphasize the “natural” use of materials.
B. Both are derived from the Florentine Renaissance style.
C. Both have been overlooked by twentieth-century Modernists.
D. They have certain visual features in common.E. They illustrate the degeneration of a style.
E. They illustrate the degeneration of a style.
3. The author’s mention of Florentine Renaissance painting serves in the context of the passage to support which of the following assertions?
A. The constraints that operate in architecture are different from those that operate in painting
B. Florentine architectural style was not determined by the nature of the available marble.
C. The Florentine Renaissance period was a period in which the other arts achieved the same distinction as did architecture.
D. Technical advances in all of the arts of the Florentine Renaissance determined the stylistic qualities of those arts.
E. Native preferences of style do not manifest themselves in the same ways in different arts.
4. The passage suggests which of the following about the cited “scholars”?
A. They believe that a decadent phase is characteristic of any significant artistic movement.
B. They reject the popular view of the Renaissance as the apex of architectural achievement.
C. They believe that a vigorous and healthy architecture would not usually employ false surfaces or imitation building materials.
D. They represent the mainstream in critical and historical thought about the Florentine Renaissance.
E. They have focused on such technical matters as the cost of building materials rather than on artistic concerns.
Like Germany, but unlike other European nations, Norway industrialized rather late in the nineteenth century. Compared to Germany, however, Norway has a comparatively recent history of industrially based social classes and a much longer history of rather egalitarian class relations. The origin of Norwegian egalitarian predates industrialism and the rise of the labor movement. The preindustrial economy was based largely on a small independent peasantry who combined agriculture with fishing (in the north) or with forestry (in the south). Because Norway was under foreign rule for five centuries until 1905, and because the topography is unfavorable for large estates, a strong aristocracy and landowner class did not emerge in most of Norway. There were some exceptions to this pattern, especially in the southern regions where a landowner class did exist. Norway’s early social and economic history engendered egalitarianism, although, as has been pointed out by several observers, it was an equality of poverty.
1. The passage is primarily concerned with discussing the
A. link between poverty and equality in the preindustrial state
B. characteristics of industrial society shared by Norway and Germany
C. effects of industrialization on social and economic relations in Norway
D. roots of social equality in Norway
E. emergence of social classes in Norway and Germany
2. According to the passage, northern and southern Norway differed in which of the following ways in the nineteenth century?
A. a landowning class was more likely to be found in southern Norway than in northern Norway.
B. Southern Norwegian peasants relied primarily on fishing for subsistence, while Northern Norwegians relied on forestry.
C. agriculture was a significant activity in southern Norway but not in northern Norway
D. Southern Norway industrialized earlier than did northern Norway
E. foreign rule effected southern Norway more profoundly than it did northern Norway
3.The passage suggests which of the following about egalitarianism in Norway?
A. It was a source of social stability that helped Norway survive five centuries of foreign rule
B. It manifested itself in the same way after industrialization as it had prior to industrialization
C. It did not necessarily provide a high standard of living for most Norwegians
D. It produced a Norwegian industrialization that differed qualitatively from industrialization in other European countries in that the labor movement was less radical in Norway
E. It was more pervasive in southern than in northern Norway
W.E.B. Du Bois’ exhibit of African American history and culture at the 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle attracted the attention of a world of sociological scholarship whose value his work challenged. Du Bois believed that Spencerian sociologists failed in their attempts to gain greater understanding of human deeds because their work examined not deeds but theories and because they gathered data not to affect social progress but merely to theorize. In his exhibit, Du Bois sought to present cultural artifacts that would shift the focus of sociology from the construction of vast generalizations to the observation of particular, living individual elements of society and the working contributions of individual people to a vast functioning social structure.
1. The passage implies that Du Bois attributed which of the following beliefs to Spencerian sociologists?
A. Theorizing is important to the understanding of human actions
B. Vast generalizations have limited value.
C. Data gathering is a relatively unimportant part of sociological research.
D. Sociology should focus on the living elements of society rather than cultural artifacts.
E. Particulars are more important than universals.
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
2. The passage implies that Du Bois believed which of the following statements about sociology?
A. It should contribute to the betterment of society.
B. It should study what people actually do.
C. It should focus on how existing social structures determine individual behavior.
Analysis 答案：A AB
文科，文学评论类，Du Bois是常见话题人物。考察细节定位题，不需要做过度推断。 注意第一题出现了因果关系词attribute…to，所以要去原文定位，第五行出现because。
When on an airplane, Consuelo never enjoys movies that have been widely recommended because the poor quality of the picture spoils her enjoyment. Since in no circumstances does she ever enjoy movies that have been widely derided, it follows that she never enjoys movies on airplanes.
Which of the following, if true, would enable the conclusion of the argument to be properly drawn?
A. The only place where Consuelo enjoys widely recommended movies is a movie theater.
B. Widely recommended movies are never shown on airplane.
C. If a movie shown on an airplane is not widely derided, then it is invariable widely recommended.
D. If the picture quality of the movies shown on airplanes was better, Consuelo would enjoy the widely recommended movies.
E. Some movies are neither widely recommended nor widely derided.