2019-04-24 09:49 供稿单位: 青岛朗阁 责编:青岛朗阁 浏览次
GRE Test Review (Pool)
Section：VERBAL- Reading Comprehension
Arranger: Tammy Sun
Astronomers have had difficulty accounting for certain planets discovered outside our solar system. They are called hot Jupiters because each is similar in mass to Jupiter, the largest solar-system planet, but orbits its parent star at a fraction of the distance at which Earth, let alone Jupiter, orbits the Sun. In the standard, solar-system-based theory of planetary formation, such a massive planet could not form so close to a star. So most attempts to explain a hot Jupiter’s existence envision it forming farther away, then migrating inward. According to one hypothesis, the planet’s gravitational field tugs on the protoplanetary disk of dust and gas from which it formed. The disk exerts its own gravitational tug, and this interplay of forces robs the planet of momentum in its orbital path, forcing it to spiral in toward the star. According to another hypothesis, the planet’s gravitational field is so strong that it creates a groove in the disk, partitioning it into inner and outer regions; the resulting gravitational interactions between the planet and these regions cause the planet to lose orbital momentum and spiral inward. Another question remains: what prevents the planet from continuing its spiral until it collides with the star?
1.The author of the passage mentions “Earth” primarily in order to
A. stress the massive size of a hot Jupiter
B. emphasize the proximity of a hot Jupiter to its parent star
C. imply that hot Jupiters are unlikely to harbor extraterrestrial life
D. point out differences between Earth and Jupiter with regard to their orbital distance from the Sun
E. illustrate how hot Jupiters might fit into the standard theory of planetary formation
2.Which of the following elements is part of one but not both of the hypotheses discussed in the passage?
A. an interplay of gravitational forces
B. a loss of orbital momentum
C. a protoplanetary disk composed of dust and gas
D. a protoplanetary disk divided into two regions.
3.It can be inferred from the passage that the “attempts” share which of the following goals?
A. to explain how a Jupiter-sized planet could form so close to its parent star.
B. to explain what prevents a hot Jupiter from colliding with its parent star.
C. to determine whether a hot Jupiter is formed from a protoplanetary disk of dust and gas.
D. to determine whether a hot Jupiter’s gravitational field is strong enough to create a groove in its protoplantary disk
E. to account for hot Jupiters in a way that is not inconsistent with the standard theory of planetary formation.
答案：B D E
现象解释类文章。解释为什么Hot Jupiters会出现在其母星周围。根据“According to one hypothesis”和“According to another hypothesis”两处信号词得知文中有两个相对立的观点，即行星的引力场作用vs. 星盘分成两部分的作用
Because the subject matter was so personal, the work of several prominent mid-twentieth century poets has been termed “confessional” poetry. But confession is a bad metaphor for what those poets did. The motive for confession is penitential or therapeutic—by speaking openly about personal guilt and suffering, the poet hopes to make them easier to bear. But these poets always approached their writing as artists, and their motive was aesthetic. Writing from experiences like madness, despair, and lust, their aim was to make effective art, not to cure themselves. To treat their poems mainly as documents of personal experience is not just to diminish the poets’ achievement, but to ignore their unanimous disdain for the idea of confessional poetry.
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
1.The author of the passage suggests that applying the term “confessional” to the work of the poets discussed
A. is mistaken in what it seems to imply about the poets’ motivation
B. might seem superficially appropriate given the subject matter of the poems
C. is an error arising from the absence of any other convenient term.
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
2.The passage implies that the poets discussed did NOT
A. think that a poet’s motivation for writing was relevant in evaluating that poet’s work
B. experience any relief of their personal suffering as a result of writing
C. apply to their own work the label by which it has subsequently been know
Historically, more cold-adapted antelope species originating in Eurasia have migrated into Africa, where the climate is generally warmer, than have warm-adapted African species into Eurasia. A likely explanation for this involves the fact that intercontinental migrations require both a land bridge connecting the two continents and the suitable habitat both on and across that land bridge. During periods of climatic cooling, such as the various ice ages, the land bridge is open for a long time (because sea level remains low) and is usable by cold-adapt species because cool habitats then extend across it. Thus during cooling most migrants would be expected to travel toward Africa, which is near the equator, since this is the direction dictated by habitat changes on a cooling Earth. In contrast, when the Earth is warm, the land bridge is reduced or gone because sea level is relatively high then. Only during the short lag between onset of global temperature change and sea level response can warm-adapted species migrate from the equator toward higher latitudes.
1.According to the passage, which of the following is true of an Eurasia-Africa land bridge during ice ages?
A. It offers suitable habitats for cold-adapted species of antelope.
B. It encourages migration from Africa to Eurasia of cold-adapted species of antelope.
C. It allows the survival of warm-adapted species of antelope that might otherwise home extinct.
D. It is more likely to exist early in an ice age than later in an ice age.
E. The habitats it offers change more quickly than do those offered by land bridges during other periods.
2.The author of the passage implies that during the “short lag”, a land bridge between Africa and Eurasia would
A. be inhabited primarily by species of antelope originating in Eurasia
B. be characterized by areas of widely varying elevation above sea level
C. be inhabited by a wide diversity of antelope species
D. contain habitats that could sustain warm-adapt antelope species
E. contain habitats similar to habitats at much higher latitudes in Eurasia
3.According to the passage, which of the following best accounts for the apparent bias in antelope-migration direction?
A. Warm-adapted antelope species are rarely able to tolerate cool habitats, whereas cold-adapted antelope species usually can tolerate warm habitats.
B. During global warming periods, land bridges, when present, lack habitats suitable for sustaining warm-adapted antelope species.
C. Under most climatic conditions, Africa offers a larger number of suitable antelope habitats than does Eurasia.
D. Many more species of antelope have originated in Eurasia than have originated in Africa.
E. Land bridges are more likely to exist when climate change favors migration to warmer climates than when climate changes favors migration to cooler climates.
答案： A D E
In most coastal regions, the level of the sea is rising in relation to the land by one to two millimeters a year, and this trend would be explained by the hypothesis that at the North and South Poles, the amount of ice that melts during the summer now exceeds the amount forms during the winter. The hypothesis is not undermined by observations that sea levels are falling relative to the Scandinavian coast by four millimeters a year. Much land in northern latitudes, including Scandinavia, is still rising in response to being freed of the enormous weight of the ice that used to cover it during the last ice age, and in Scandinavia the land is now rising faster than the sea.
1.In the passage, the two highlighted portions play which of the following roles?
A. The first states observation the accuracy of which is challenged in the passage; the second is part of the ground on which that challenge is based.
B. The first states observations that, according to the passage, are incompatible with a certain hypothesis; the second is part of the grounds offered in support of a revision of that hypothesis.
C. The first states observations that, according to the passage , can be reconciled with a certain hypothesis; the second describes a phenomenon that is factual basis of that reconciliation.
D. The first presents a phenomenon, two competing explanations of which are considered in the passage; the second is the explanation of the phenomenon that the passage argues is correct.
E. The first provides evidence against a position; the second is that position.
As of late 1980s, neither theorists nor large-scale computer climate models could accurately predict whether cloud systems would help or hurt a warming globe. Some studies suggested that a four percent increase in stratocumulus clouds over the ocean could compensate for a doubling in atmospheric carbon dioxide, preventing a potentially disastrous planet-wide temperature increase. On the other hand, an increase in cirrus clouds could increase global warming.
That clouds represented the weakest element in climate models was illustrated by a study of fourteen such models. Comparing climate forecasts for a world with double the current amount of carbon dioxide, researchers found that the models agreed quite well if clouds were not included. But when clouds were incorporated, a wide range of forecasts was produced. With such discrepancies plaguing the models, scientists could not easily predict how quickly the world’s climate would change, nor could they tell which regions would face dustier droughts or deadlier monsoons.
1.The author of the passage is primarily concerned with
A. confirming a theory
B. supporting a statement
C. presenting new information
D. predicting future discoveries
E. comparing points of view
2.It can be inferred that one reason the fourteen models described in the passage failed to agree was that
A. they failed to incorporate the most up-to-date information about the effect of clouds on climate
B. they were based on faulty information about factors other than clouds that affect climate
C. they were based on different assumptions about the overall effects of clouds on climate
D. their originators disagreed about the kinds of forecasts the models should provide
E. their originators disagreed about the factors other than clouds that should be included in the models
3.The information in the passage suggests that scientists would have to answer which of the following questions in order to predict the effect of clouds on the warming of the globe?
A. What kinds of cloud systems will form over the Earth?
B. How can cloud systems be encouraged to form over the ocean?
C. What are the causes of the projected planetwide temperature increase?
D. What proportion of cloud systems are currently composed of cirrus clouds?
答案：B A A
观点论证型文章。文章第一句给出一个statement：无论理论学家还是巨型计算机都不能预测云系统对气候变暖的作用。第二段讲通过十四个模型的研究支持这个statement。注意第二题failed to agree应该找与十四个模型不一致的选项。
Before 1970, children in the United States were commonly vaccinated against smallpox. In the early 1970s, large-scale vaccinations of children against smallpox were discontinued because smallpox had virtually disappeared from the world. Recently, some scientists have cautioned that the Unite States could be exposed to smallpox again. Contrary to what many people believe, this exposure would probably find all age-groups within the United States population at comparable levels of risk of contracting smallpox, since ______
1.Which of the following most logically completes the passage?
A. smallpox is a highly communicable disease among people who are not immune to it
B. smallpox vaccine is not now widely available in the United States
C. the population of the United States has been growing more slowly since 1970 than it was before then
D. smallpox vaccinations lose their efficacy after about 20 years
E. people in the United States travel more than they did in 1970, thereby increasing the chances that an epidemic could spread
Growing grapes in greenhouses containing air enriched with carbon dioxide increases crop yields, an effect that is enhanced when the growing temperature is also raised several degrees. Although enclosed cultivation is impractical in vineyards, increases in yields from grape cultivation in the open can be expected because emissions from the burning of fossil fuels will almost certainly lead to an increase in the carbon dioxide content of atmospheric air over the next century.
1.Which of the following, if true, most weakens the argument?
A. When grapes are grown in greenhouses, it is relatively easy to control the grape pests that thrive in air enriched with carbon dioxide.
B. Recent improvements in pest control have increased grape yields in many vineyards.
C. Increasing carbon dioxide levels in greenhouses has not been shown to improve the quality of grapes grown in greenhouses.
D. Increasing carbon dioxide levels in greenhouses increases the sweetness of raisins made from grapes grown in the greenhouses.
E. As the carbon dioxide level in the open air increases, temperatures at the Earth's surface will also increase.
2.Which of the following would be most useful to determine the possibility that the grapes yields increase with the raise of the temperature?
A. Whether increasing carbon dioxide levels in greenhouses improves the eating quality of the grapes grown in the greenhouses
B. Whether in the future the market for grapes will be greater than it is now
C. Whether temperatures today often get so high in regions where grapes are grown that the grapes suffer serious damage
D. Whether the use of greenhouses for growing grapes serves research purposes only
E. Whether the economic benefits that might be derived from a major increase in world grape production would outweigh any economic harm resulting from negative health effects associated with increased worldwide carbon dioxide levels
Analysis 答案： A C
In 1995, after an absence of nearly 70 years, wolves were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park. During the wolf-free era, heavy browsing of aspen trees by elk populations spelled doom not only for trees themselves but for a host of other creatures dependent on them, such as beavers, whose population in Yellowstone crashed after wolves were removed. Without beavers to create ponds, wetland ecosystems--aquatic plants, amphibians, birds--were devastated. When wolves returned, grazers and browsers resumed normal patterns of behaviors, preferring safer, open areas over the dense cover and streamsides where carnivores can lurk. Keeping elk wary and on the move, wolves gave aspen and other young trees the opportunity to grow and become reestablished.
1.The passage asserts which of the following about beaver populations in Yellowstone?
A. They have rebounded since the reintroduction of wolves.
B. They were adversely affected by the feeding habits of elk population.
C. They increased during the period when wolves disappeared from the park.
D. They have historically had an adverse effect on the park's wetland ecosystems.
E. They are essential to the health of the park's aspen trees.
2.The author would most likely agree with which of the following claims about the reintroduction of wolves to Yellowstone?
A. It indirectly harmed some of the park's amphibian habitats
B. It reduced the number of elk feeding along streamsides
C. It led to greater species diversity among the park's grazers and browsers.
D. It significantly increased competition for food among the park's carnivores.
E. It fostered the resurgence of tree species that once flourished in the park's open areas.
Analysis B B
African American painter Malvin Gray Johnson (1896-1934) grew up in urban environments, including New York City, but in 1934 visited and painted scenes from the small town of Brightwood, Virginia. Some critics have celebrate the Brightwood paintings, which depict a vibrant natural landscape and close-knit Black community, as Johnson’s discovery of an “authentic” African American life in the rural South. This view, which reflects a common tendency to regard African American artists’ imagery as unmediated documentation of direct experience, overlooks Johnson’s interpretive thinking. In truth, Johnson’s conceptualization of the South was largely formed before he left New York, where he had studied the French expressionist Paul Cézanne. Johnson’s Brightwood paintings reflect Cézanne’s stylistic influence and tendency to present rural life as an idyllic alternative to modern industrialism.
1.The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. contest a particular interpretation of Johnson’s Brightwood paintings
B. compare Johnson’s Brightwood paintings to French Expressionist art
C. use information about Johnson’s historical context to illuminate the social significance of his Brightwood paintings
D. explain why the work of African American painters is sometimes misunderstood
E. call attention to an aspect of Johnson’s technique that has been largely overlooked
For the following question, consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
2.The highlighted sentence has which of the following functions in the passage?
A. It expands upon a point made in the previous sentence.
B. It helps explain a common tendency described earlier in the passage
C. It identifies a way in which Johnson sought to differentiate his work from that of other artists.
Analysis 答案：A A
W.E.B. Du Bois’ exhibit of African American history and culture at the 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle attracted the attention of a world of sociological scholarship whose value his work challenged. Du Bois believed that Spencerian sociologists failed in their attempts to gain greater understanding of human deeds because their work examined not deeds but theories and because they gathered data not to affect social progress but merely to theorize. In his exhibit, Du Bois sought to present cultural artifacts that would shift the focus of sociology from the construction of vast generalizations to the observation of particular, living individual elements of society and the working contributions of individual people to a vast functioning social structure.
1.The passage implies that Du Bois attributed which of the following beliefs to Spencerian sociologists?
A. Theorizing is important to the understanding of human actions
B. Vast generalizations have limited value.
C. Data gathering is a relatively unimportant part of sociological research.
D. Sociology should focus on the living elements of society rather than cultural artifacts.
E. Particulars are more important than universals.
For the following question, consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
2.The passage implies that Du Bois believed which of the following statements about sociology?
A. It should contribute to the betterment of society.
B. It should study what people actually do.
C. It should focus on how existing social structures determine individual behavior.
3. It can be inferred from the passage that Du Bois believed which of the following statements about the artifacts he included in his exhibit?
A. They tended to support an established view of African American history and culture.
B. They documented the contributions of particular African Americans to American social structure.
C. They were chosen to encourage Spencerian sociologists to form useful generalizations.
Analysis 答案：A AB B