2019-06-12 13:51 供稿单位: 未知 责编:青岛朗阁 浏览次
GRE Test Review (Pool)
Section：VERBAL- Reading Comprehension
Arranger: Sherry Zhang
An alarming number of Mediterranean monk seals, an endangered species, have recently died. Postmortem analysis showed the presence of an as yet unidentified virus, as well as evidence of a know bacterial toxin. Seawater samples from the area where the seals died did contain unusually high concentrations of the toxic bacterium. Therefore, although both viruses and bacterial toxins can kill seals, it is more likely that these deaths were the result of the bacterial toxin.
Which of the following, if true, provides additional evidence to support the conclusion?
A. Viruses are much more difficult to identify in postmortem analysis than bacteria are.
B. Mediterranean monk seals are the only species of seal in the area where the bacterium was found.
C. The bacterium is almost always present in the water in at least small concentrations.
D. Nearly all the recent deaths were among adult seals, but young seals are far more susceptible to viruses than are adult seals.
E. Several years ago, a large number of monk seals died in the same area as a result of exposure to a different bacterial toxin.
考频： 2019.01.04, 2019.01.27, 2019.02.22, 2019. 03.02， 2018年考过一次
Before feminist literary criticism emerged in the 1970s, the nineteenth-century United States writer Fanny Fern was regarded by most critics (when considered at all) as a prototype of weepy sentimentalism—a pious, insipid icon of conventional American culture. Feminist reclamations of Fern, by contrast, emphasize her nonsentimental qualities, particularly her sharply humorous social criticism. Most feminist scholars find it difficult to reconcile Fern’s sardonic social critiques with her effusive celebrations of many conventional values. Attempting to resolve this contradiction, Harris concludes that Fern employed flowery rhetoric strategically to disguise her subversive goals beneath apparent conventionality. However, Tompkins proposes an alternative view of sentimentality itself, suggesting that sentimental writing could serve radical, rather than only conservative ends by swaying readers emotionally, moving them to embrace social change.
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
1. The passage suggests which of the following about the contradiction mentioned in the highlighted sentence?
A. It was not generally addressed by critics before the 1970s.
B. It is apparent in only a small number of Ferns writings.
C. It has troubled many feminist critics who study Fern.
2. It can be inferred from the passage that Tompkins would be most likely to agree with which of the following about the critics mentioned in the passage?
A. They accurately characterize the overall result Fern is aiming to achieve.
B. They are not as dismissive of Fern as some feminist critics have suggested.
C. They exaggerate the extent to which Fern intended her writing to serve a social purpose.
D. They wrongly assume that sentimental must be a pejorative term.
E. They fail to recognize the role that sentimental rhetoric plays to reader’s emotions.
Analysis 答案：AC D
The history of the transmission of ancient Roman texts prior to invention of the printing press is reconstructed from evidence both internal and external to the texts themselves. Internal evidence is used to reconstruct the relationship of the surviving manuscripts of a Roman text to one another, as represented in a modern stemma codicum: a diagram depicting the genealogical relationship of surviving manuscripts and those the stemmas editor believes existed at one time. Stemma are scholar’s only road maps to textual connections based on internal evidence, but they may paint a distorted picture of reality because they diagram the relationships of only those manuscripts known or inferred today. If surviving copies are few, the stemma perforce brings into proximity manuscripts that were widely separated in time and place of origin. Conversely, the stemma can also bestow a semblance of separation on manuscripts written within a few months of one another or even in the same room.
One type of external evidence that may shed light on the transmission of Roman texts is the availability of a work in the Middle Ages, when many classical texts were circulated. Too often, though, too much is inferred about a particular works circulation in the Middle Ages from the number of manuscripts surviving today. When a work survives in a single manuscript copy, editors call the manuscript, rather glamorously, the lone survivor–implying that all its (presumably rare) companions were destroyed sometime early in the Middle Ages by pillaging barbarians. It is equally possible that the work survived far into the Middle Ages in numerous copies in monastic libraries but were unnoticed due to lack of interest. The number of extant manuscripts, however few, really does not allow scholars to infer how many ancient Latin manuscripts of a work survived to the ninth, the twelfth, or even the fifteenth century.
Quotations from a Roman text by a medieval author are another category of external evidence: but does the appearance of a rare word or grammatical construction—or even a short passage—really indicate a medieval author’s firsthand knowledge of this or that ancient work, or does such usage instead derive from some intermediate source, such as a grammar book or a popular style manual? Medieval authors do quote extensively from ancient authors; while such quotations provide some evidence of the works medieval circulation, as well as define its evolving fortunes and the various uses to which it was put, they may be far less useful in reconstructing the text of an ancient work.
Much as scholars want to look for overall patterns and formulate useful generalizations, the transmission of each text is a different story and each manuscripts history is unique. Scholars must be careful not to draw conclusions that go beyond what the evidence can support.
1. The passage is primarily concerned with which of the following?
A. tracing certain changes in the methods used to study the transmission of ancient Roman texts.
B. contrasting two types of evidence used in investigating the transmission of ancient Roman texts.
C. outlining certain difficulties associated with studying the transmission of ancient Roman texts.
D. advocating the use of one type of evidence about ancient Roman texts over the use of another type.
E. explaining the development and potential uses and drawbacks of stemma in the study of ancient Roman texts.
2. As described in the passage, a stemma is most closely analogous to which of the following?
A. a department store inventory list that excludes some departments
B. a map from which a large section has been torn off
C. a chronology that includes only major historical events
D. a family tree in which some generations are not recorded
E. a government organizational chart from which some agencies are omitted
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
3. In its discussion of external evidence, the passage suggests which of the following about manuscripts of ancient Roman texts during the Middle Ages?
A. It is possible that fewer manuscripts were destroyed by barbarians in the early Middle Ages than scholars frequently suppose.
B. Additional copies of some so-called lone survivor manuscripts may have existed well into the Middle Ages.
C. If an ancient Roman text is quoted in a work by a medieval author, then it is likely that at least one manuscript copy of that text survived into the Middle Ages.
4. Click on the sentence in the first paragraph that suggests that scholars might be led to underestimate the extent of the connection between certain manuscripts.
Analysis 答案：C D AB last sentence of the first paragraph
When studying shrimp feeding from hydro-thermal vents at the bottom of the ocean, biologists were surprised that the shrimps’ reproductive cycles followed seasonal patterns. Far beyond the reach of sunlight, and with food abundant around the vents all year round, why should such animals reproduce seasonally? The answer might involve their offspring, which in their larval form drift in the currents to colonize new vents. The larvae must feed during their trip, and their springtime release coincides with a peak in algae raining down from surface waters. So far, researchers have found no evidence of seasonal breeding among vent-dwelling species that provide their offspring with yolk to sustain them or among vent-dwelling species found in areas of the ocean with not seasonal algae blooms.
Which of the following best describes the function of the highlighted sentence?
A. It casts doubt on the accuracy of earlier observations of seasonal breeding among shrimp
species living near hydro-thermal vents.
B. It undermines the explanation proposed for seasonal breeding among some shrimp species living near hydro-thermal vents.
C. It suggests that alternative theories are needed to explain seasonal breeding among shrimp species living near hydro-thermal vents.
D. It describes the survival benefits to shrimp of mating in parts of the ocean where algae blooms rain down abundantly.
E. It supports the explanation proffered for the seasonal breeding observed among some shrimp species living near hydro-thermal vents.
考频：2019.03.17, 2019.04.04, 2018年考过两次
The manuscripts of the eight extant Latin tragedies identify the plays as the Marci Lucii Annei Senecae Tragoediae. Since nobody of that name is known, modern scholars believe the dramasto be the work of Lucius Annaeus Seneca the Younger, the well-known philosopher, orator and politician. Clearly the tragedies were written during Seneca’s lifetime: internal references to earlier poets, most notably Ovid, indicate that the dramas cannot have been composed prior to the second decade C.E., and the plays must have been written by 96C.E., when Quintilian quotes Medea, one of the tragedies.
It is remarkably, however, that Seneca himself never mentions the plays, since there are certain passages in them that could be used to illustrate points of his philosophy. There are at least two possible explanations. In the early Roman Empire, playwrights were sometimes exiled or executed for line constructed as directed against the emperor; thus, Seneca’s silence may be simple prudence. But if anyone could safely attach his name to dramas, surely it would be Seneca, the emperor’s tutor. And although Herrmann offers Seneca’s modesty as an explanation, Seneca is not averse to referring to his other writings. The evidence for equating Seneca with the author of the tragedies seems circumstantial.
1. The author mentions Medea primarily in order to
A. give an example of a play in which references to certain authors can be used to determine when the Marci Lucii Annei Senecae Tragoediae were composed
B. acknowledge the possibility that the Marci Lucii Annei Senecae Tragoediae may have been written by Quintilian rather than Seneca
C. suggest that certain of the Marci Lucii Annei Senecae Tragoediae may have been written near the end of Seneca’s lifetime
D. argue that Marci may have been one of the last of the eight plays in the Marci Lucii Annei Senecae Tragoediae to be written
E. indicate how the latest possible date for the time period during which the Marci Lucii Annei Senecae Tragordiae were composed might be established
2. The author of the passage makes which of the following claims about the eight extant Latin tragedies?
A. There is only circumstantial evidence that the plays were all written by the same author.
B. Scholars have persistently attributed the plays to Seneca despite evidence that some of them may have been composed prior to his lifetime.
C. Evidence in the manuscripts of the plays identifies them as having been written by Lucius Annaeus Seneca the Younger.
D. The plays contain some lines that have been construed as being directed against the emperor.
E. The plays contain material that could illustrate certain aspects of Seneca’s philosophy.
3. The author of the passage would most likely agree that if Seneca had in fact written the tragedies, then Seneca probably would have
A. used the plays as platforms for his philosophical ideas
B. referred to the plays in some of his other writings
C. been in danger of exile or execution for certain line in the plays
D. avoided attaching his name to be the plays out of modesty
E. written the plays during the latter portion of his lifetime
4. The author implies which of the following about Seneca’s status as the emperor’s tutor?
A. It enabled Seneca to illustrate points of his philosophy to the leaders of the early Roman Empire.
B. It had more of an effect on Seneca’s career as a dramatist than it did on his career as a philosopher, orator, and politician.
C. It might have offered Seneca some protection from certain dangers playwrights typically faced.
D. It required Seneca to avoid making references to his various writings.
E. It required that Seneca take particular care that his writings could not be construed as being directed against the emperor.
5. Each of the following assertions consistent with Seneca’s authorship of the plays appears in the passage EXCEPT
A. There is no known author by the name to which the plays are attributed.
B. Playwrights in the early Roman Empire were politically vulnerable.
C. There are references in the play to Ovid.
D. There are references in the plays to Seneca’s philosophical works.
E. There are quotations from the plays in the works of Quintilian.
Recent studies of ancient Maya water management have found that the urban architecture of some cities was used to divert rainfall runoff into gravity-fed systems of interconnected reservoirs. In the central and southern May Lowlands, this kind of water control was necessary to support large populations throughout the year due to the scarcity of perennial surface water and the seasonal availability of rainfall. Some scholars argue that the concentration of water within the urban core of these sites provided a centralized source of political authority for Maya elites based largely on controlled water access. Such an argument is plausible, however, it is less useful for understanding the sociopolitical implications of water use and control in other, water-rich parts of the Maya region.
1. The author of the passage implies which of the following about the political importance of the type of urban water management system described in the passage?
A. Because the system was centralized, it allowed political control over a widely scattered population.
B. The knowledge required to design and maintain the system became the pretext for Maya elites’ political authority.
C. By selectively limiting access to water, Maya elites used the system to curb challenges to their authority
D. The system is not sufficient to explain the sources of centralized political power in all parts of the Maya region
E. The system’s continued maintenance required political authorities to exert control over an increasing proportion of economic resources.
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
2. According to the passage, which of the following is true of the water management systems in the central and southern Maya Lowlands?
A. They were implemented in part because of the prevailing pattern of rainfall.
B. They were an integral part of lowland cities’ architecture.
C. They were needed because of insufficient resources such as ponds, rivers and lakes in the lowlands.
考频：2019.1.19 2019.3.17 ; 2018年5次
Ralph Ellison was passionately interested in visual arts. He immersed himself in Harlem’s art scene in the 1930s, even apprenticing with sculptor Richmond Barthe for a time. Yet he was wary of projects aiming to provide a visual rendering of his novel Invisible Man. He reluctantly allowed Franklin Library to publish two illustrated versions of the novel but found the results disappointing and repeatedly rejected proposed film versions of the book. Despite his involvement in visual arts, Ellison insisted that only language could capture the complexity of American identity. This complexity consisted of the tension arising from the collision of the United States’ written ideals, as outlined in the founding documents, and the historical and contemporary experience molding the national consciousness.
1. It can be inferred that the author mentions Ellison’s apprenticeship with Richmond Barthe primarily in order to
A. show that Ellison drew upon some aspects of the visual arts in developing his ideas for Invisible Man
B. show that Ellison’s claim for the superiority of the language drive from his experience with other are forms
C. establish that Ellison had experience with an art form that interested many leading figures of the 1930s Harlem art scene
D. suggest that in the 1930s the Harlem art scene provided an environment in which artists were likely to work in several media
E. qualify Ellison’s reservations about visual renderings of his work by showing that he was not indifferent to visual art
2. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about the “tension”?
A. It partly resulted from social injustices that Ellison worked to alleviate.
B. It came to Ellison’s attention partly as a result of his experience with proposed film versions of Invisible Man.
C. Ellison thought that it could not be adequately represented by sculpture.
D. Ellison believed that it arose from contradictions within the United States’ founding ideals.
E. Ellison felt that it was an issue that could not adequately be addressed through the depiction of fictional characters.
文学评论。Ralph Ellison是visual art的忠实拥趸，却在其小说中避免过多的visual的描写，不同意给书配插画或者拍成电影。他认为只有语言才能描绘出他想要表达的东西。两道题目都是推断题结合举例目的题，第一题的E项用到了双重否定，值得注意，比较容易错。
Background Info (From Wikipedia)
Ralph Waldo Ellison (March 1, 1913–April 16, 1994) was an African-American writer. He was born in Oklahoma and studied at the Tuskegee Institute.
Ellison is most famous for writing Invisible Man, a novel about racism and African American identity. The narrator of the book calls himself an invisible man because people refuse to see him for who he really is. Invisible Man won a National Book Award and is still read today by many students and scholars.
Besides Invisible Man, Ellison wrote many essays. He was very interested in music, especially jazz. He started a second novel, called Juneteenth, but never finished it.
Although vastly popular during its time, much nineteenth-century women’s fiction in the United States went unread by the twentieth-century educated elite, who were taught to ignore it as didactic. However, American literature has a tradition of didacticism going back to its Puritan roots, shifting over time from sermons and poetic transcripts into novels, which proved to be perfect vehicles for conveying social values. In the nineteenth century, critics reviled Poe for neglecting to conclude his stories with pithy moral tags, while Longfellow was canonized for his didactic verse. Although rhetorical changes favoring the anti-didactic can be detected as nineteenth-century American transformed itself into a secular society, it was twentieth-century criticism, which placed aesthetic value above everything else, that had no place in its doctrine for the didacticism of others.
1. Which of the following best describes the function of the highlighted sentence?
A. It explains why the fiction mentioned in the first sentence was not popular in the twentieth century.
B. It assists in drawing a contrast between nineteenth-century and twentieth-century critics.
C. It provides an example of how twentieth – century readers were taught to ignore certain literature.
D. It questions the usefulness of a particular distinction between Poe and Longfellow made by critics.
E. It explains why Poe’s stories were more popular than Longfellow’s verse during the nineteenth century.
2. In the context in which it appears, “conveying” most nearly means
Analysis 答案：B D
Some archaeologists speculate that the Americas might have been initially colonized between 40,000 and 25,000 years ago. However, to support this theory it is necessary to explain the absence of generally accepted habitation sites for that time interval in what is now the United States. Australia, which has a smaller land area than the United States, has many such sites, supporting the generally accepted claim that the continent was colonized by humans at least 40,000 years ago. Australia is less densely populated (resulting in lower chances of discovering sites) and with its overall greater aridity would have presented conditions less favorable for hunter-gatherer occupation. Proportionally, at least as much land area has been lost from the coastal regions of Australia because of postglacial sea-level rise as in the United States, so any coastal archaeological record in Australia should have been depleted about as much as a coastal record in the United States. Since there are so many resource-rich rivers leading inland from the United States coastlines, it seems implausible that a growing population of humans would have confined itself to coasts for thousands of years. If inhabitants were present 25,000 years ago, the chances of their appearing in the archaeological record would seem to be greater than for Australia.
1. The passage is primarily concerned with doing which of the following?
A. presenting an objection to a claim
B. accounting for an apparent anomaly
C. outlining an alternative interpretation
D. correcting a particular misconception
E. questioning the validity of a comparison
2. The author of the passage implies which of the following about 25,000 years ago?
A. The coastline of the region that is now the United States is longer than it was 40,000 years ago.
B. Rivers in what is now the United States were numerous than they are now.
C. Australia was less densely populated at that time than was the region that is now the United States.
D. Australia’s climate was significantly drier than it is now.
E. Global sea level was lower than it is now.
3. The author of the passage implies that, in what is now the United States, archaeological evidence of inhabitation in the period from 40,000 to 25,000 years ago is lacking because that region
A. had its oldest habitation sites inundated following a postglacial rise in sea level.
B. has many resource-rich rivers that facilitated the dispersal of early inhabitants from an initial concentration in coastal areas.
C. was sparsely populated until about 25,000 years ago.
D. was colonized less than 25,000 years ago.
E. was inhabited only by hunter-gatherers until 25,000 years ago.
Analysis 答案：E A
年度考频： 2019.3.23, 2018年考过两次
Having a larger assortment to choose from increases consumers’ expectations about matching their preferences. The heightened expectations seem logical, since assortments containing more or more varied items should increase the degree to which preferences can be matched. In practice, however, as assortment size increases, the degree to which consumers realize better preference matches often rises relatively little. Larger assortments may not actually offer more variety, the market may simply not supply an envisioned offering, or in the absence of sophisticated search tools, consumers may miss a better preference match even if it is available. Therefore, larger assortments can increase the likelihood that expectations will not be met, leaving consumers less satisfied with options chosen from larger rather than smaller assortments.
1. In the highlighted portion of the passage, the author assumes that
A. consumers’ attitude toward the assortment of choices they are presented with depends almost exclusively on the size of the range
B. consumers who have clear preferences make their choices more quickly than those whose preferences are relatively vague
C. consumers’ anticipation of meeting specific expectations directly affects their satisfaction with a selected option
D. consumers presented with an assortment of choices often adjust the preferences they had beforehand
E. consumers presented with a larger assortment of choices often make their decisions too quickly
2.Which of the following best describes the function of the first sentence in the author’s argument as a whole?
A. It states a premise on which the author’s conclusion is based
B. It provides information to support the inference made in the following sentence
C. It introduces a concept that the author proves is illogical
D. It summarizes a position that the author proceeds to dispute
E. It presents the phenomenon the argument is intended to explain