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青岛朗阁:2018年12月2日GRE考试阅读题回顾

2018-12-04 10:28     供稿单位: 青岛朗阁     责编:青岛朗阁    浏览

摘要: 正在进行GRE备考的小伙伴,你们知道2018年12月2日的GRE考试都考了什么吗?今天为了帮助大家更好的准备GRE考试,青岛朗阁就为大家带来2018年12月2日GRE考试阅读题回顾,小伙伴们一起来看看吧。

  正在进行GRE备考的小伙伴,你们知道2018年12月2日的GRE考试都考了什么吗?今天为了帮助大家更好的准备GRE考试,青岛朗阁就为大家带来2018年12月2日GRE考试阅读题回顾,小伙伴们一起来看看吧。

GRE Test Review (Pool)
Section:VERBAL- Reading Comprehension
Arranger: Sherry Zhang
Date: 12/02/2018


Pool Number:
Passage 3
A decrease in face-to-face social contact can precipitate depression. Time spent using the Internet cannot be spent in face-to-face social contact, so psychologists have speculated that sharply increasing Internet use can cause depression. Studies of regular Internet users have found a significantly higher incidence of depression among those who had recently doubled the amount of time they spent using the Internet than among those whose use had not increased. Hence, the psychologists’ speculation is correct.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
A. In general, the reason that the people in the studies had doubled their Internet use was not that they had earlier experienced a significant decrease in opportunities for face-to-face social contact.
B. A sharp decrease in face-to-face social contact is the only change in daily activity that can lead to an increased incidence of depression.
C. Using the Internet presents no opportunities for people to increase the amount of face-to-face social contact they experienced in their daily lives.
D. Regular Internet users who are depressed will experience an immediate improvement in mood if they sharply decrease the amount of time they spend on the Internet.
E. Before they doubled the time they spent on the Internet, the people who did so were already more prone to depression than are regular Internet users in general.
 
Analysis 答案:C
ASP逻辑单题,题型为假设题。很多花两倍时间上网的人患有抑郁症,所以验证了心理学家的猜想:面对面交流的时间减少会导致抑郁。攻击逻辑链:上网时间增多就一定意味着面对面交流减少了吗?如果认识了网友导致见面了呢?如果无法排除此类可能,心理学家的猜想就无法证实。
本年度考频:2018.3.4



Pool Number:
Passage 18
Massive projectiles striking much larger bodies create various kinds of craters, including multi-ring basins–the largest geologic features observed on planets and moons. In such collisions, the impactor is completely destroyed and its material is incorporated into the larger body. Collison’s between bodies of comparable size, on the other hand, have very different consequences: one or both bodies might be entirely smashed, with mass from one or both the bodies redistributed among new objects formed from the fragments. Such a titanic collision between Earth and a Mars-size impactor may have given rise to Earth’s Moon.

The Earth-Moon system has always been perplexing. Earth is the only one of the inner planets with a large satellite, the orbit of which is neither in the equatorial plane of Earth nor in the plane in which the other planets lie. The Moon’s mean density is much lower than that of Earth but is about the same as that of Earth’s mantle. This similarity in density has long prompted speculation that the Moon split away from a rapidly rotating Earth, but this idea founders on two observations. In order to spin off the Moon, Earth would have had to rotate so fast that a day would have lasted less than three hours. Science offers no plausible explanation of how it could have slowed to its current rotational rate from that speed. Moreover, the Moon’s composition, though similar to that of Earth’s mantle, is not a precise match. Theorizing a titanic collision eliminates postulating a too-rapidly spinning Earth and accounts for the Moon’s peculiar composition. In a titanic collision model, the bulk of the Moon would have formed from a combination of material from the impactor and Earth’s mantle. Most of the earthly component would have been in the form of melted or vaporized matter. The difficulty in recondensing this vapor in Earth’s orbit, and its subsequent loss to the vacuum of outer space, might account for the observed absence in lunar rocks of certain readily vaporized compounds and elements.

Unusual features of some other planets might also be explained by such impacts. Mercury is known to have a high density in comparison with other rocky planets. A titanic impact could have stripped away a portion of its rocky mantle, leaving behind a metallic core whose density is out of proportion with the original ratio of rock to metal. A massive, glancing blow to Venus might have given it its anomalously slow spin and reversed direction of rotation. Such conjectures are tempting, but, since no early planet was immune to titanic impacts, they could be used indiscriminately to explain away in a cavalier fashion every unusual planetary characteristic; still, we may now be beginning to discern the true role of titanic impacts in planetary history.

1. According to the passage, which of the following is true of the collisions mentioned in the highlighted sentence?
A. They occur less frequently than do titanic collisions.
B. They occur between bodies of comparable size.
C. They occur primarily between planet-sized bodies.
D. They result in the complete destruction of the impacting body.
E. They result in mass being redistributed among newly formed objects.

2. The author of the passage asserts which of the following about titanic collision models?
A. Such models are conclusive with respect to certain anomalies within the solar system, but leave numerous other anomalies unexplained.
B. Such models are more likely than are earlier models to account for the formation of multi-ring basins.
C. Such models may be particularly useful in explaining what happens when the impacting bodies involved are of highly dissimilar mean densities.
D. Such models have been tested to such a degree that they are quickly reaching the point where they can be considered definitive.
E. Such models are so tempting that they run the risk of being used indiscriminately to explain unusual planetary features.

3. The passage suggests that which of the following is true of the cited compounds and elements?
A. They were created by reactions that took place during a titanic collision.
B. They were supplied by an impactor that collided with Earth.
C. They were once present on the Moon but were subsequently vaporized.
D. They are rarely found on planet-size bodies in our solar system.
E. They are present on Earth but not on the Moon.

4. In the second paragraph, the author is primarily concerned with
A. arguing in favor of a particular theory about the formation of the Earth-Moon system.
B. summarizing conventional theories about the formation of the earth-Moon system.
C. anticipating and responding to criticisms of a particular theory about the formation of the Earth-Moon system.
D. explaining why the Earth-Moon system is considered scientifically perplexing.
E. questioning an assumption underlying one theory about the formation of the Earth-Moon system.
 
Analysis 答案:DEEA
理科,天文学类。Titanic Collision解决了许多太阳系中的天文现象。本文结构比较清晰,现象解释型,里面有大量自然环境类词汇,请考生关注。前三题是细节题,第一题和第三题比较好定位。第四题比较难,考察段落功能,需要理解前后文。属于今年高频题目。
本年度考频:2018.7.15 2018.9.14




Pool Number:
Passage29
 
For years, the leading theory for what caused the Younger Dryas (a dramatic reversal, about 12,900 years ago, in a global warming trend) was a release of water from Glacial Lake Agassiz. The theory posited that this meltwater flooded into the North Atlantic, lowering the salinity and intensity of surface waters enough to prevent them from sinking. Ocean currents were changed in such a way that northward transport of heat in the ocean diminished, and the North Atlantic regions plunged back into near-glacial conditions. However, evidence has emerged that the Younger Dryas began long before freshwater flooded the North Atlantic. Additionally, the temperature changes induced by a shutdown in the North Atlantic heat conveyor system are too small to explain the Younger Dryas.

1. The author of the passage implies which of the following about the release of water from glacial Lake Agassiz?
A. The notion that the release occurred has been challenged by more recent findings.
B. The release probably occurred much earlier than scientists have generally assumed.
C. The release would not have been sufficient to cause any temperature change in the North Atlantic.
D. The timing of the release is such that it probably did not trigger the onset of the Younger Dryas.
E. The release was probably unrelated to the global warming trend that was taking place.

2. The passage is primarily concerned with
A. presenting evidence that undermines an explanation
B. explaining the nature of a climatological phenomenon
C. questioning the timing of a particular event
D. discussing a new explanation for a phenomenon
E. suggesting revisions to a popular theory
 

Analysis
 
答案:D A
气象生态类文章,讲导致Younger Dryas的原因。水表盐度降低防止下沉;北大西洋暖流减少,沿岸地区变冷。典型的新老观点对比型文章。注意第一题的C项的any一词是错误的。
年度考频2018.11.18



Pool Number:
Passage 37
 
Because the subject matter was so personal, the work of several prominent mid-twentieth century poets has been termed “confessional” poetry. But confession is a bad metaphor for what those poets did. The motive for confession is penitential or therapeutic—by speaking openly about personal guilt and suffering, the poet hopes to make them easier to bear. But these poets always approached their writing as artists, and their motive was aesthetic. Writing from experiences like madness, despair, and lust, their aim was to make effective art, not to cure themselves. To treat their poems mainly as documents of personal experience is not just to diminish the poets’ achievement, but to ignore their unanimous disdain for the idea of confessional poetry.

Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
1. The author of the passage suggests that applying the term “confessional” to the work of the poets discussed
A. is mistaken in what it seems to imply about the poets’ motivation
B. might seem superficially appropriate given the subject matter of the poems
C. is an error arising from the absence of any other convenient term.

Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
2. The passage implies that the poets discussed did NOT
A. think that a poet’s motivation for writing was relevant in evaluating that poet’s work
B. experience any relief of their personal suffering as a result of writing
C. apply to their own work the label by which it has subsequently been know
Analysis 答案:AB C
文科,文学评论类,讲忏悔式诗歌其实是用词不当,这些作者写诗并非为了自我救赎而是审美。两道题都是不定项选择题,注意定位细节。第二题注意有否定排除考点。
本年度考频:2018.7.15 /2018.9.28



Pool Number:
Passage40

 
Buell’s study of village sketches (a type of fiction popular in the United States in the 1830s and 1840s) provides a valuable summary of sketches that portray the community as homogeneous and fixed, but it ignores those by women writers, which typically depicted the diversity that increasingly characterized actual village communities at that time. These women’s geographical mobility was restricted (although women writers of the time were not uniformly circumscribed in this way), and their subject matter reflected this fact. Yet their texts were enriched by what Gilligan, writing in a different context, has called the ability to attend to voices other than one’s own. To varying degrees, the women’s sketches portray differences among community members: all stress differences among men and among women (particularly the latter) as well as differences between the sexes, and some also depict cultural diversity. These writers represent community as dynamic, as something that must be negotiated and renegotiated because of its members’ divergent histories, positions, expectations, and beliefs.

Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
1. According to the passage, village sketches written by women in the United States in the 1830s and 1840s typically reflected
A. the negotiations that characterized trade relationships between villages
B. the fact that these women did not often travel very far beyond their own village
C. the plurality of experiences and ideas that existed among the residents of a village

2. Select the sentence in the passage that contrasts how men and women depicted life invillage communities.

3. The passage indicates that when Gilligan spoke of “the ability to attend to voices other than one’s own,” she
A. did not consider that ability to be a desirable psychological characteristic
B. did not believe that individuals differ greatly with respect to that ability
C. was implying that that ability enhances a sense of belonging in communities
D. was assuming that good writers are able to depict diverse characters
E. was not discussing the women who wrote village sketches
 
Analysis 答案:BC 第一句 E
社会类话题,讲village sketches的研究,忽略了女性作家的描绘。女性和文学这种话题的结合是非常容易考的,请参考Jane Austen和她的浪漫注意文风的研究。这篇文章的题目涉及三种题型,考得比较全面。本年度第一次被考到。








Pool Number:
Passage 48
 
When studying shrimp feeding from hydro-thermal vents at the bottom of the ocean, biologists were surprised that the shrimps’ reproductive cycles followed seasonal patterns. Far beyond the reach of sunlight, and with food abundant around the vents all year round, why should such animals reproduce seasonally? The answer might involve their offspring, which in their larval form drift in the currents to colonize new vents. The larvae must feed during their trip, and their springtime release coincides with a peak in algae raining down from surface waters. So far, researchers have found no evidence of seasonal breeding among vent-dwelling species that provide their offspring with yolk to sustain them or among vent-dwelling species found in areas of the ocean with not seasonal algae blooms.

Which of the following best describes the function of the highlighted sentence?
A. It casts doubt on the accuracy of earlier observations of seasonal breeding among shrimp
species living near hydro-thermal vents.
B. It undermines the explanation proposed for seasonal breeding among some shrimp species living near hydro-thermal vents.
C. It suggests that alternative theories are needed to explain seasonal breeding among shrimp species living near hydro-thermal vents.
D. It describes the survival benefits to shrimp of mating in parts of the ocean where algae blooms rain down abundantly.
E. It supports the explanation proffered for the seasonal breeding observed among some shrimp species living near hydro-thermal vents.
 
Analysis 答案:E
生物学类话题,研究海底热液喷口和藻类生长的关系。考查了句子功能题,需要看上下文,根据语境能看出解释关系。一定要注意这句话中有两个否定词:no和not,所以表示肯定。
本年度考频:2018.4.28


Pool Number:
Passage59
Recent studies of ancient Maya water management have found that the urban architecture of some cities was used to divert rainfall runoff into gravity-fed systems of interconnected reservoirs. In the central and southern May Lowlands, this kind of water control was necessary to support large populations throughout the year due to the scarcity of perennial surface water and the seasonal availability of rainfall. Some scholars argue that the concentration of water within the urban core of these sites provided a centralized source of political authority for Maya elites based largely on controlled water access. Such an argument is plausible, however, it is less useful for understanding the sociopolitical implications of water use and control in other, water-rich parts of the Maya region.

1. The author of the passage implies which of the following about the political importance of the type of urban water management system described in the passage?
A. Because the system was centralized, it allowed political control over a widely scattered population.
B. The knowledge required to design and maintain the system became the pretext for Maya elites’ political authority.
C. By selectively limiting access to water, Maya elites used the system to curb challenges to their authority
D. The system is not sufficient to explain the sources of centralized political power in all parts of the Maya region
E. The system’s continued maintenance required political authorities to exert control over an increasing proportion of economic resources.

Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
2. According to the passage, which of the following is true of the water management systems in the central and southern Maya Lowlands?
A. They were implemented in part because of the prevailing pattern of rainfall.
B. They were an integral part of lowland cities’ architecture.
C. They were needed because of insufficient resources such as ponds, rivers and lakes in the lowlands.
 
Analysis 答案:D ABC
文科文章,历史与建筑学,讲玛雅当代建筑特点是会导水蓄水,而这些特点暗示了政治统治所受到的影响。基本都为细节题,第二题为不定项,注意文中的Lowlands=题目重的lowland。还有plausible是“看似正确的”之意。
本年度考频:2018.03.04, 2018.11.18, 2018.10.12


Pool Number:
Passage 128

 
MacArthur and Wilson suggested that the biodiversity of an island will vary in direct proportion to a function of the island’s size (i.e., larger islands can support a greater number of species) and in inverse proportion to a function of its distance from the mainland (i.e., many remote islands will tend to support fewer species). Reduced biodiversity in an island context is likely to require significant adaptation on the part of colonizing human populations. Evans argues thatthis limitation makes islands ideal laboratories for the study of human adaptations to the natural environment, whilst Renfrew and Wagstaff, in the introduction to their study of Melos, focus on this limitation in biodiversity as a “significant characteristic of the island ecosystem.” For human communities, however, this limitation may potentially be offset by other factors. The reduced biodiversity of an island ecosystem applies only to terrestrial resources: the resources of the sea will be as rich as on any other coastal area, and may be equally important to human communities. A small island such as Malta or Melos allows all communities direct access to the sea, providing an important nutritional “safety net,” as well as an element of dietary diversity, which may actually give island communities an advantage over their landlocked counterparts. Islands may also have specific nonbiological resources (such as obsidian on Melos), which may be used in exchange with communities on other islands and adjacent mainlands.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. evaluate two contrasting approaches to island biodiversity
B. discuss the relevance of certain data pertaining to island biodiversity
C. call into question a particular understanding of island biodiversity
D. consider various reasons for reduced biodiversity on islands
E. contrast large and small islands in terms of overall biodiversity

Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
2. According to the author, factors of potential importance to human communities on islands include
A. the accessibility of the sea’s resources
B. a diet superior in some respects to the diet of landlocked communities
C. nonbiological resources that can be exploited

3. The author suggests that in considering the biodiversity of islands, Evans
A. focuses too exclusively on terrestrial resources
B. misunderstands the relationship between an island’s size and its terrestrial resources
C. misinterprets the work of MacArthur and Wilson
D. is wrong to assume that more remote islands support fewer species
E. downplays the ways that human communities adapt to island biodiversity
 
Analysis 答案:C ABC A
生态环境科学,讲生物多样性和岛屿大小的关系,以及与大陆与岛屿的关系。考了主旨题和细节定位题。注意生物多样性是生命科学类非常高频的话题,建议大家可以扩充该知识点的背景储备。
本年度考频:2018.10.12
RECAP 此次GRE阅读考试题库所中机经不算太多,新题较多。高频机经依然是复习重点。本次今年10.12较多,11月份的也有重复。另也有几篇三月份的考题被考到。  

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