2018-12-25 09:32 供稿单位: 青岛朗阁 责编:青岛朗阁 浏览次
GRE Test Review (Pool)
Section：VERBAL- Reading Comprehension
Arranger: Sherry Zhang
The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1868, prohibits state governments from denying citizens the “equal protection of the laws.” Although precisely what the framers of the amendment meant by this equal protection clause remains unclear, all interpreters agree that the framers’ immediate objective was to provide a constitutional warrant for the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which guaranteed the citizenship of all persons born in the United States and subject to United States jurisdiction. This declaration, which was echoed in the text of the Fourteenth Amendment, was designed primarily to counter the Supreme Court’s ruling in Dred Scott v. Sandford that Black people in the United States could be denied citizenship. The act was vetoed by President Andrew Johnson, who argued that the Thirteenth Amendment, which abolished slavery, did not provide Congress with the authority to extend citizenship and equal protection to the freed slaves. Although Congress promptly overrode Johnson’s veto, supporters of the act sought to ensure its constitutional foundations with the passage of the Fourteenth Amendment.
The broad language of the amendment strongly suggests that its framers were proposing to write into the Constitution not a laundry list of specific civil rights but a principle of equal citizenship that forbids organized society from treating any individual as a member of an inferior class. Yet for the first eight decades of the amendment’s existence, the Supreme Court’s interpretation of the amendment betrayed this ideal of equality. In the Civil Rights Cases of 1883, for example, the Court invented the “state action” limitation, which asserts that “private” decisions by owners of public accommodations and other commercial business to segregate their facilities are insulated form the reach of the Fourteenth Amendment’s guarantee of equal protection under the law.
After the Second World War, a judicial climate more hospitable to equal protection claims culminated in the Supreme Court;s ruling in Brown v. Board of Education that racially segregated schools violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Two doctrines embraced by the Supreme Court during this period extended the amendment’s reach. First, the Court required especially strict scrutiny of legislation that employed a “suspect classification,” meaning discrimination against a group on grounds that could be construed as racial. This doctrine has broadened the application of the Fourteenth Amendment to other, nonracial forms of discrimination, for while some justices have refused to find any legislative classification other than race to be constitutionally disfavored, most have been receptive to arguments that at least some nonracial discriminations, sexual discrimination in particular, are “suspect” and deserve this heightened scrutiny by the courts. Second, the Court relaxed the state action limitation on the Fourteenth Amendment, bringing new forms of private conduct within the amendment’ s reach.
1. Which of the following best describes the main idea of the passage?
A. By presenting a list of specific rights, framers of the Fourteenth Amendment were attempting to provide a constitutional basis for broad judicial protection of the principle of equal citizenship
B. Only after the Supreme Court adopted the suspect classification approach to reviewing potentially discrimination legislation was the applicability of the Fourteenth Amendment extended to include sexual discrimination
C. Not until after the Second World War did the Supreme Court begin to interpret the Fourteenth Amendment in a manner consistent with the principle of equal citizenship that it express.
D. Interpreters of the Fourteenth Amendment have yet to reach consensus with regard to what its framers meant by the equal protection clause
E. Although the reluctance of judges to extend the reach of the Fourteenth Amendment to nonracial discrimination has betrayed the principle of equal citizenship, the Supreme Court’s use of the state action limitation to insulate private activity fro the amendment’s reach has been more harmful.
2. The passage suggests that the principle effect of the state action limitation was to
A. allow some discriminatory practices to continue unimpeded by the Fourteenth Amendment
B. influence the Supreme Court’s ruling in Brown v. Board of Education
C. provide expanded guidelines describing prohibited actions
D. prohibit states from enacting laws that violated the intent of the Civil Rights Act of 1866
E. shift to state government the responsibility for enforcement of laws prohibiting discriminatory practices
3. The author’s position regarding the intent of the framers of the Fourteenth Amendment would be most seriously undermined if which of the following were true?
A. The framers had anticipated state action limitations as they are described in the passage.
B. The framers had merely sought to prevent discriminatory acts by federal officials.
C. The framers were concerned that the civil rights act of 1866 would be overturned by the Supreme Court.
D. The framers were aware that the phrase “equal protection of the laws” had broad implications.
E. The framers believed that racial as well as non-racial forms of discrimination were unacceptable.
4. According to the passage, the original proponents of the Fourteenth Amendment were primarily concerned with
A. detailing the rights afforded by the principle of equal citizenship
B. providing support in the Constitution for equal protection for all citizens of the United States
C. closing a loophole that could be used to deny individuals the right to sue for enforcement of their civil rights
D. asserting that the civil rights protect by the Constitution included nonracial discrimination as well as racial discrimination
E. granting state government broader discretion in interpreting the Civil Rights Act in 1866
5. The author implies that the Fourteenth Amendment might not have been enacted if
A. congress’ authority with regard to legislating civil rights had not been challenged
B. the framers has anticipated the Supreme Courts ruling in Brown v. Board of Education
C. the framers had believed that it would be used in deciding cases of discrimination involving non-racial groups
D. most state governments had been willing to protect citizens’ civil rights
E. its essential elements had not been implicit in the Thirteenth Amendment
6. According to the passage, which of the following most accurately indicates the sequence of the events listed below?
Ⅰ. civil rights act of 1866
Ⅱ. Dred Scott v. Sandford
Ⅲ. Fourteenth Amendment
Ⅳ. Veto by President Johnson
A. Ⅰ Ⅱ Ⅲ Ⅳ
B. Ⅰ Ⅳ Ⅱ Ⅲ
C. Ⅰ Ⅳ Ⅲ Ⅱ
D. Ⅱ Ⅰ Ⅳ Ⅲ
E. Ⅲ Ⅱ Ⅰ Ⅳ
7. Which of the following can be inferred about the second of the two doctrines (highlighted sentence) of the passage?
A. It caused some justice to rule that all types of discrimination are prohibited by the Constitution.
B. It shifted the focus of the Supreme Court from racial to nonracial discrimination.
C. It narrowed the concern of the Supreme Court to legislation that employed a suspect classification.
D. It caused legislators who were writing new legislation to reject language that could be construed as permitting racial discrimination.
E. It made it more difficult for commercial business to practice racial discrimination.
本年度考频：2018.1.5 10.26 12.14 12.22
Although vastly popular during its time, much nineteenth-century women’s fiction in the United States went unread by the twentieth-century educated elite, who were taught to ignore it as didactic. However, American literature has a tradition of didacticism going back to its Puritan roots, shifting over time from sermons and poetic transcripts into novels, which proved to be perfect vehicles for conveying social values. In the nineteenth century, critics reviled Poe for neglecting to conclude his stories with pithy moral tags, while Longfellow was canonized for his didactic verse. Although rhetorical changes favoring the anti-didactic can be detected as nineteenth-century American transformed itself into a secular society, it was twentieth-century criticism, which placed aesthetic value above everything else, that had no place in its doctrine for the didacticism of others.
1. Which of the following best describes the function of the highlighted sentence?
A. It explains why the fiction mentioned in the first sentence was not popular in the twentieth century.
B. It assists in drawing a contrast between nineteenth-century and twentieth-century critics.
C. It provides an example of how twentieth – century readers were taught to ignore certain literature.
D. It questions the usefulness of a particular distinction between Poe and Longfellow made by critics.
E. It explains why Poe’s stories were more popular than Longfellow’s verse during the nineteenth century.
2. In the context in which it appears, “conveying” most nearly means
Analysis 答案：B D
As of late 1980s, neither theorists nor large-scale computer climate models could accurately predict whether cloud systems would help or hurt a warming globe. Some studies suggested that a four percent increase in stratocumulus clouds over the ocean could compensate for a doubling in atmospheric carbon dioxide, preventing a potentially disastrous planet-wide temperature increase. On the other hand, an increase in cirrus clouds could increase global warming.
That clouds represented the weakest element in climate models was illustrated by a study of fourteen such models. Comparing climate forecasts for a world with double the current amount of carbon dioxide, researchers found that the models agreed quite well if clouds were not included. But when clouds were incorporated, a wide range of forecasts was produced. With such discrepancies plaguing the models, scientists could not easily predict how quickly the world’s climate would change, nor could they tell which regions would face dustier droughts or deadlier monsoons.
1. The author of the passage is primarily concerned with
A. confirming a theory
B. supporting a statement
C. presenting new information
D. predicting future discoveries
E. comparing points of view
2. It can be inferred that one reason the fourteen models described in the passage failed to agree was that
A. they failed to incorporate the most up-to-date information about the effect of clouds on climate
B. they were based on faulty information about factors other than clouds that affect climate
C. they were based on different assumptions about the overall effects of clouds on climate
D. their originators disagreed about the kinds of forecasts the models should provide
E. their originators disagreed about the factors other than clouds that should be included in the models
3. The information in the passage suggests that scientists would have to answer which of the following questions in order to predict the effect of clouds on the warming of the globe?
A. What kinds of cloud systems will form over the Earth?
B. How can cloud systems be encouraged to form over the ocean?
C. What are the causes of the projected planetwide temperature increase?
D. What proportion of cloud systems are currently composed of cirrus clouds?
Cotton grass, which grows only in arctic regions, has been the only summertime source of protein available to caribou. Caribou that do not get adequate amounts of protein in the summer are unable to reproduce the following year. Rising average temperatures in arctic regions, however, are causing cotton grass to disappear. Therefore, if the warming trend continues, caribou are likely to become extinct.
Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
A. cotton grass is the only one of the caribou’s food sources that is becoming scarce as temperatures rise in arctic regions. B. caribou that do not eat enough protein to reproduce do not live as long as caribou that do C. The warming trend in arctic regions will not enable other plants capable of providing protein to caribou to grow there. D. The caribou is the only animal that depends on cotton grass as a major source of food. E. If the warming trend continues and cotton grass disappears from arctic regions, then cotton grass will be extinct.
逻辑单题，ASSUMPTION类。讲长在酸性土壤的cotton grass因为气候变化而消失，caribou夏季只吃它，所以说cotton grass会灭绝。那么问题在于：还可以吃别的吗？
Growing grapes in greenhouses containing air enriched with carbon dioxide increases crop yields, an effect that is enhanced when the growing temperature is also raised several degrees. Although enclosed cultivation is impractical in vineyards, increases in yields from grape cultivation in the open can be expected because emissions from the burning of fossil fuels will almost certainly lead to an increase in the carbon dioxide content of atmospheric air over the next century.
Which of the following, if true, most weakens the argument?
A. When grapes are grown in greenhouses, it is relatively easy to control the grape pests that thrive in air enriched with carbon dioxide.
B. Recent improvements in pest control have increased grape yields in many vineyards.
C. Increasing carbon dioxide levels in greenhouses has not been shown to improve the quality of grapes grown in greenhouses.
D. Increasing carbon dioxide levels in greenhouses increases the sweetness of raisins made from grapes grown in the greenhouses.
E. As the carbon dioxide level in the open air increases, temperatures at the Earth's surface will also increase.
年度考频：2018.7.15 11.18 12.22
Unlike herbivores and omnivores, predators have traditionally been thought not to balance nutrient intake because of the assumption that animal tissue as a food source varies little and is nutritionally balanced. But chemical analysis of invertebrate prey reveals remarkable variation in nutrient composition among species; even within species, nutrient composition may varyconsiderably. Greenstone suggested that predators may select food items according to their nutrient contents. Jensen et al (2011) have shown experimentally that even sit-and-wait invertebrate predators with limited mobility can work to address nutrient deficiencies. The wolf spider, for instance, has been shown to regulate nutrient intake by extracting more dry massfrom a prey item if it contains a higher proportion of a nutrient that was deficient in the previous prey.
1. The passage supplies information for answering which of the following questions?
A. Do invertebrate predators with full mobility address nutrient needs in the same fashion as sit-and-wait invertebrate predators with limited mobility?
B. Why would there be a considerable variation in nutrient composition within prey of a given species?
C. Is all of the nutrient content of invertebrate prey contained in the dry mass?
D. What would a wolf spider do if a fly it was eating contained a higher proportion of a certain nutrient than was present in the spider’s recent prey?
E. How is a wolf spider able to determine that some prey it is eating contains a higher proportion of a nutrient that was deficient in the previous prey?
2. Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage as a whole?
A. A phenomenon is described, and an interpretation is offered.
B. A claim is made, and the corroborating evidence is evaluated.
C. A hypothesis is presented and undermined by recent findings.
D. A contrast is noted and shown to be specious based on recent findings.
E. A series of assumptions is presented and shown to be based on sound reasoning.