2018-11-26 10:44 供稿单位: 青岛朗阁 责编:青岛朗阁 浏览次
GRE Test Review (Pool)
Section：VERBAL- Reading Comprehension
Arranger: Tammy Sun
An alarming number of Mediterranean monk seals, an endangered species, have recently died. Postmortem analysis showed the presence of an as yet unidentified virus, as well as evidence of a know bacterial toxin. Seawater samples from the area where the seals died did contain unusually high concentrations of the toxic bacterium. Therefore, although both viruses and bacterial toxins can kill seals, it is more likely that these deaths were the result of the bacterial toxin.
Which of the following, if true, provides additional evidence to support the conclusion?
A. Viruses are much more difficult to identify in postmortem analysis than bacteria are.
B. Mediterranean monk seals are the only species of seal in the area where the bacterium was found.
C. The bacterium is almost always present in the water in at least small concentrations.
D. Nearly all the recent deaths were among adult seals, but young seals are far more susceptible to viruses than are adult seals.
E. Several years ago, a large number of monk seals died in the same area as a result of exposure to a different bacterial toxin.
In 1995 the Galileo spacecraft captured data about Jupiters atmosphere—namely, the absence of most of the predicted atmospheric water—that challenged prevailing theories about Jupiters structure. The unexpectedness of this finding fits a larger pattern in which theories about planetary composition and dynamics have failed to predict the realities discovered through space exploration. Instead of normal planets whose composition could be predicted by theory, the planets populating our solar system are unique individuals whose chemical and tectonic identities were created through numerous contingent events. One implication of this is that although the universe undoubtedly holds other planetary systems, the duplication of the sequence that produced our solar system and the development of life on Earth is highly unlikely.
Recently planetary scientists have suggested that the external preconditions for the development of Earth’s biosphere probably included four paramount contingencies. First, a climate conducive to life on Earth depends upon the extraordinarily narrow orbital parameters that define a continuously habitable zone where water can exist in a liquid state. If Earths orbit were only 5 percent smaller than it is, temperatures during the early stages of Earths history would have been high enough to vaporize the oceans. If the Earth-Sun distance were as little as 1 percent larger, runaway glaciation on Earth about 2 billion years ago would have caused the oceans to freeze and remain frozen to this day. Second, Jupiter’s enormous mass prevents most Sun-bound comets from penetrating the inner solar system. It has been estimated that without this shield, Earth would have experienced bombardment by comet-sized impactors a thousand times more frequently than has actually been recorded during geological time. Even if Earth‘s surface were not actually sterilized by this bombardment, it is unlikely that any but the most primitive life-forms could have survived. This suggests that only planetary systems containing both terrestrial planets like Earth and gas giants like Jupiter might be capable of sustaining complex life-forms.
Third, the gravitational shield of the giant outer planets, while highly efficient, must occasionally fail to protect Earth. Paradoxically, while the temperatures required for liquid water exist only in the inner solar system, the key building blocks of life, including water itself, occur primarily beyond the asteroid belt. Thus the evolution of life has depended on a frequency of cometary impacts sufficient to convey water, as well as carbon and nitrogen, from these distant regions of the solar system to Earth while stopping short of an impact magnitude that would destroy the atmosphere and oceans.
Finally, Earth’s unique and massive satellite, the Moon, plays a crucial role in stabilizing the obliquity of Earth’s rotational axis, this obliquity creates the terrestrial seasonality so important to the evolution and diversity of life. Mars, in contrast, has a wildly oscillating tilt and chaotic seasonality, while Venus, rotating slowly backward, has virtually no seasonality at all.
1. The passage is primarily concerned with
A. enumerating conditions that may have been necessary for a particular development
B. outlining the conditions under which scientists may be able to predict certain events
C. explaining how a particular finding affected scientists understanding of a phenomenon
D. suggesting reasons why a particular outcome was more likely to occur than other possible outcomes
E. assessing the relative significance of factors that contributed to a particular occurrence
2. It can be inferred from the passage that the planetary scientists would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements concerning the development of complex life forms on Earth?
A. It might have occurred earlier in Earths history if cometary impacts had been less frequent than they were.
B. It could have occurred if Earths orbit were 1 percent larger than it is but not if Earths orbit were 5 percent smaller
C. It probably follows a pattern common on other terrestrial planets that occupy planetary systems containing gas giants.
D. Its dependence on the effect that Jupiters gravitational shield has on Earth was difficult to recognize prior to 1995.
E. It has been contingent on conditions elsewhere in Earths solar system as well as on conditions on Earth itself.
3. The author of the passage most likely mentions Mars oscillating tilt primarily in order to
A. provide evidence for a proposition about the potential effects of cometary impacts
B. emphasize the absence from our solar system of normal planets
C. contrast the rotational axis of Mars with that of Venus
D. characterize the role of other planets in the solar system in earths development
E. emphasize the importance of the Moon to the development of life on Earth
4. The passage suggests each of the following about water on Earth EXCEPT:
A. It was conveyed to Earth by comets.
B. It appeared on Earth earlier than did carbon and nitrogen.
C. Its existence in a liquid state is contingent on Earths orbital parameters.
D. Much of it came from a part of the solar system where water cannot exist in a liquid state.
E. It is unlikely that there would be much of it available to support life if the gravitational shield of the outer planets did not limit the frequency with which comets strike Earth.
答案：A E E B
年度考频：2018.09.28/ 2018.10.21/2018.11.18/ 2018.11.23
The relevance of the literary personality—a writer’s distinctive attitudes, concerns, and artistic choices—to the analysis of a literary work is being scrutinized by various schools of contemporary criticism. Deconstructionists view the literary personality, like the writer’s bibliographical personality, as irrelevant. The proper focus of literary analysis, they argue, is a work’s intertextuality (interrelationship with other texts), subtexts (unspoken, concealed, or repressed discourses), and metatexts (self-referential aspects), not a perception of a writer’s verbal and aesthetic “fingerprints”. New historicists also devalue the literary personality, since, in their emphasis on a work’s historical context, they credit a writer with only those insights and ideas that were generally available when the writer lived. However, to readers interested in literary detective work—say scholars of classical (Greek and Roman) literature who wish to reconstruct damaged texts or deduce a work’s authorship—the literary personality sometimes provides vital clues.
1.The passage is primarily concerned with
A. discussing attitudes toward a particular focus for literary analysis
B. describing the limitations of two contemporary approaches to literary analysis
C. pointing out the similarities among seemingly contrasting approaches to literary analysis
D. defending the resurgence of a particular focus for literary analysis
E. defining a set of related terms employed in literary criticism
2. For the following question, consider each of the choice separately and select all that apply.
It can be inferred from the passage that on the issue of how to analyze a literary work, the new historicists would most likely agree with the deconstructionists that
A. The writer’s insights and ideas should be understood in terms of the writer’s historical context.
B. The writer’s literary personality has little or no relevance.
C. The critic should primarily focus on intertextuality, subtexts and metatexts.
3. In the context in which it appears, “credit writer with” most nearly means
A. trust a writer with
B. applaud a writer for
C. believe a writer created
D. presume a writer had
E. accept a writer for
答案：A B B
Much recent work has examined the claim that women encounter increasing obstacles relative to men as they move up the organizational ladder in business. This proposition, which we term the increasing-disadvantage model, is a core element of the popular glass ceiling metaphor. Despite continued widespread public acceptance of the glass ceiling idea and some consistent findings, most research to date has failed to support the increasing-disadvantage model. Indeed, several studies based on private-sector firms find that women’ s mobility prospects improve, rather than decline, as they climb upward in corporate hierarchies. In the public sector, researchers have found either no sex differences in mobility or a larger female disadvantage in lower grades.
Comparing cross-sectional national samples of workers, Baxter and Wright found no evidence in the United States, and only limited evidence in Sweden and Australia, that women’ s probability of being located in a higher versus a lower hierarchical level declined relative to men’ s at higher levels. Taken together, these findings suggest that the glass ceiling may be a myth. Women’ s scarcity in top organizational ranks may simply represent the cumulative effect of a constant-or even decreasing-disadvantage at successive hierarchical levels.
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. compare two explanations for a recurring problem
B. summarize evidence relevant to a hypothesis
C. point out inconsistencies in a set of findings
D. account for the persistence of a point of view
E. reconsider the origins an ongoing issue
2. Based on the passage, which of the following is true of the “limited evidence” from Sweden and Australia?
A. It lends supports to the increasing-disadvantage model.
B. It correlates with findings on women’ s mobility from most other counties.
C. It suggests important cultural similarities between these countries.
D. It points to a phenomenon not widely recognized in these countries.
E. It helps explain the persistence of the glass ceiling.
3. The author of the passage and those accepting the “proposition” would most likely agree with which of the following?
A. Lower down on the organizational ladder, women tend to experience fewer disadvantages than they do at higher levels.
B. Women experience no more disadvantages in moving up the organizational ladder than do men.
C. The degree of disadvantage experiences by women remains constant as women move up the organizational ladder.
D. The obstacles to women’ s advancement vary significantly from country to country.
E. Women face some disadvantage at each stage of the organizational ladder.
Analysis 答案：B A E
The damage that trucks do to highways escalates dramatically with the weight borne per axle. New regulations increase the maximum permitted vehicle weight; these regulations will therefore allow onto the highway trucks capable of doing even more damage than those currently permitted.
1. The argument is open up to criticism on the grounds that it
A. fails to establish that the level of damage done by trucks is a serious problem
B. omits evidence about one of the two relevant factors
C. ignores the possibility that careful driving can lessen damage to highways
D. presumes that trucks are the only vehicles capable of causing substantial damage to highways
E. presumes that something is bound to happen just because it is allowed to happen
Although the passenger pigeons, now extinct, were abundant in eighteenth- and nineteenth century America, archaeological studies at twelfth-century Cahokian sites in the present day United States examined household food trash and found that traces of passenger pigeon were quite rare. Given that the sites were close to a huge passenger pigeon roost documented by John James Audubon in the nineteenth century and that Cahokians consumed almost every other animal protein source available, the archaeologists conducting the studies concluded the passenger pigeon population had once been very limited before increasing dramatically in post-Columbian America. Other archaeologists have criticized those conclusions on the grounds that passenger pigeon bones would not be likely to be preserved. But all the archaeological projects found plenty of bird bones- and even tiny bones from fish.
1. The author of the passage mentions “tiny bones from fish” primarily in order to
A. explain why traces of passenger pigeon are rare at Cahokian sites
B. support a claim about the wide variety of animal proteins in the Cahokian diet
C. provide evidence that confirms a theory about the extinction of the passenger pigeon
D. cast doubt on the conclusion reached by the archaeologists who conducted the studies discussed in the passage
E. counter an objection to an interpretation of the data obtained from Cahokian sites
2. Which of the following, if true, would most call into question the reasoning of “the archaeologists conducting the studies”?
A. Audubon was unable to correctly identify twelfth-century Cahokian sites
B. Audubon made his observations before passenger pigeon populations began to decline.
C. Passenger pigeons would have been attracted to household food trash
D. Archaeologist have found passenger pigeon remains among food waste at eighteenth century human settlements
E. Passenger pigeons tended not to roost at the same sites for very many generations
Analysis 答案：E E
本年度考频：2018.06.29/ 2018.10.21/ 2018.11.18/ 2018.11.23
Late-eighteenth-century English cultural authorities seemingly concurred that women readers should favor history, seen as edifying, than fiction, which was regarded as frivolous and reductive. Readers of Marry Ann Hanway’s novel Andrew Stewart, or the Northern Wanderer, learning that its heroine delights in David Hume’s and Edward Gibbon’s histories, could conclude that she was more virtuous and intelligent than her sister, who disdains such reading. Likewise, while the naïve, novel-addicted protagonist of Jane Austen’s Northanger Abbey, Catherine Morland, finds history a chore, the sophisticated, sensible character Eleanor Tilney enjoys it more than she does the Gothic fiction Catherine prefers. Yet in both cases, the praise of history is more double-edged than it might actually appear. Many readers have detected a protofeminist critique of history in Catherine’s protest that she dislikes reading books filled with men “and hardly any women at all.” Hanway, meanwhile, brings a controversial political edge to her heroine’s reading, listing the era’s two most famous religious skeptics among her preferred authors. While Hume’s history was generally seen as being less objectionable than his philosophy, there were widespread doubts about his moral soundness even as a historian by the time that Hanway was writing, and Gibbon’s perceived tendency to celebrate classical paganism sparked controversy from the first appearance of his history of Rome.
1. The author’s primary purpose is that
A. the evidence used in support of a particular argument is questionable
B. a distinction between two genres of writing has been overlooked
C. a particular issue is more complex than it might appear
D. two apparently different works share common features
E. two eighteenth-century authors held significantly different attitudes toward a particular
2. According to the passage, which of the following is true of Hume’s reputation in the late eighteenth century?
A. He was more regarded as a historian than Gibbon
B. His historical writing, like his philosophical writing, came to be regarded as problematic
C. He was more well-known for his historical writing than for his philosophical writing
D. His historic writing came to be regarded as morally questionable because of his association with Gibbon
E. His views about classical paganism brought him disapproval among the general reading public
3. The highlighted sentence exemplifies which of the following?
A. Cultural authorities’ attempt to use novels to support their view about the value of reading fiction
B. Eighteenth-century women authors’ attempts to embody in their work certain cultural authorities’ views about reading
C. A point about the educational value of reading books about history
D. An instance in which a particular judgment about the value of reading history is apparently presupposed
E. A challenge to an assumption about eighteenth-century women’s reading habits
4. The author mentions the “widespread doubts” in order to
A. support a point about the scholarly merit of Hume’s writings
B. contrast Hume’s philosophical writing with his writing on historical subjects
C. suggest that Hanway did not understand the implicit controversy depicting her heroine as reading Hume
D. identify an ambiguity in Hanway’s depiction of the philosopher in The Northern Wanderer
E. illustrate a point about a way eighteenth-century fiction sometimes represented historians
Analysis 答案: C B D C