2019-01-22 09:22 供稿单位: 青岛朗阁 责编:青岛朗阁 浏览次
GRE Test Review (Pool)
Section：VERBAL- Reading Comprehension
Arranger: Sherry Zhang
Before feminist literary criticism emerged in the 1970s, the nineteenth-century United States writer Fanny Fern was regarded by most critics (when considered at all) as a prototype of weepy sentimentalism—a pious, insipid icon of conventional American culture. Feminist reclamations of Fern, by contrast, emphasize her nonsentimental qualities, particularly her sharply humorous social criticism. Most feminist scholars find it difficult to reconcile Fern’s sardonic social critiques with her effusive celebrations of many conventional values. Attempting to resolve this contradiction, Harris concludes that Fern employed flowery rhetoric strategically to disguise her subversive goals beneath apparent conventionality. However, Tompkins proposes an alternative view of sentimentality itself, suggesting that sentimental writing could serve radical, rather than only conservative ends by swaying readers emotionally, moving them to embrace social change.
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
1. The passage suggests which of the following about the contradiction mentioned in the highlighted sentence?
A. It was not generally addressed by critics before the 1970s.
B. It is apparent in only a small number of Ferns writings.
C. It has troubled many feminist critics who study Fern.
2. It can be inferred from the passage that Tompkins would be most likely to agree with which of the following about the critics mentioned in the passage?
A. They accurately characterize the overall result Fern is aiming to achieve.
B. They are not as dismissive of Fern as some feminist critics have suggested.
C. They exaggerate the extent to which Fern intended her writing to serve a social purpose.
D. They wrongly assume that sentimental must be a pejorative term.
E. They fail to recognize the role that sentimental rhetoric plays to reader’s emotions.
Analysis 答案：AC D
A primary value in early twentieth-century Modernist architectural theory was that of “truth to materials”, that is, it was essential that a building’s design express the “natural” character of the building materials. This emphasis would have puzzled the architects of the Italian Renaissance (sixteenth century), a period widely regarded as the apex of architectural achievement, for Renaissance architects’ designs were determined only minimally by the materials employed. The diversity of Italy’s natural resources provided Renaissance architects with a wide variety of building materials. The builders of the Pitti Palace (1558-1570) used great blocks of Tuscan stone, just as Etruscans living in the same part of Italy had done some twenty centuries earlier. Had the Florentine Renaissance builders aped the Etruscan style, it might be said that their materials determined their style, since Etruscan style matched the massive, stark, solid character of the stone. But these same materials, which so suited the massive Etruscan style, were effectively used by the Florentine Renaissance to create the most delicate and graceful of styles.
A similar example of identical materials used in contrasting styles characterizes the treatment of Roman travertine marble. When Baroque architects of seventeenth-century Rome desired a massive and solid monumental effect, they turned to travertine marble, whose “natural effect” is, indeed, that of spacious breadth and lofty, smoothly rounded surfaces. Yet during the Renaissance, this same material had been used against its “nature,” in the Florentine tradition of sharply carved detail. Italian Renaissance architecture was shaped less by the “nature” of the materials at hand than by the artistic milieu of Renaissance Italy, which included painting and sculpture as well as architecture. While Roman travertine marble may have lent itself to fine carving, the Florentine passion for fine detail is no less marked in Florentine Renaissance painting than in Florentine Renaissance architecture. Similarly, in the next century, the emphasis on shading and corporeal density in Baroque painting mirrored the use of Roman travertine marble in Baroque architecture to create broad shadow and powerful masses.
The ingenuity of Renaissance architects extended beyond merely using a material in a way not suggested by its outward natural appearance. If they conceived a design that called for a certain material either too expensive or difficult to work with, they made no scruple about imitating that material. Their marbles and their stones are often actually painted stucco. When the blocks of masonry with which they built were not in scale with the projected scheme, the real joints were concealed and false ones introduced. Nor were these practices confined, as some scholars insist, to the later and supposedly decadent phases of the art. Material, then, was utterly subservient to style.
1. The passage is primarily concerned with
A. explaining the differences in quality among different kinds of building materials
B. discussing the differences among Etruscan, Florentine Renaissance, and Roman Baroque architecture
C. describing how different materials influenced architecture in different cities
D. describing the manner in which Renaissance architects often resorted to artificial materials and illusionistic effects
E. demonstrating the attitude of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Italian architects toward the use of building materials
E. demonstrating the attitude of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Italian architects towards the use of building materials.
2. It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes that which of the following is true of painting and architecture of the Baroque era?
A. Both emphasize the “natural” use of materials.
B. Both are derived from the Florentine Renaissance style.
C. Both have been overlooked by twentieth-century Modernists.
D. They have certain visual features in common.E. They illustrate the degeneration of a style.
E. They illustrate the degeneration of a style.
3. The author’s mention of Florentine Renaissance painting serves in the context of the passage to support which of the following assertions?
A. The constraints that operate in architecture are different from those that operate in painting
B. Florentine architectural style was not determined by the nature of the available marble.
C. The Florentine Renaissance period was a period in which the other arts achieved the same distinction as did architecture.
D. Technical advances in all of the arts of the Florentine Renaissance determined the stylistic qualities of those arts.
E. Native preferences of style do not manifest themselves in the same ways in different arts.
4. The passage suggests which of the following about the cited “scholars”?
A. They believe that a decadent phase is characteristic of any significant artistic movement.
B. They reject the popular view of the Renaissance as the apex of architectural achievement.
C. They believe that a vigorous and healthy architecture would not usually employ false surfaces or imitation building materials.
D. They represent the mainstream in critical and historical thought about the Florentine Renaissance.
E. They have focused on such technical matters as the cost of building materials rather than on artistic concerns.
Recent studies of ancient Maya water management have found that the urban architecture of some cities was used to divert rainfall runoff into gravity-fed systems of interconnected reservoirs. In the central and southern May Lowlands, this kind of water control was necessary to support large populations throughout the year due to the scarcity of perennial surface water and the seasonal availability of rainfall. Some scholars argue that the concentration of water within the urban core of these sites provided a centralized source of political authority for Maya elites based largely on controlled water access. Such an argument is plausible, however, it is less useful for understanding the sociopolitical implications of water use and control in other, water-rich parts of the Maya region.
1. The author of the passage implies which of the following about the political importance of the type of urban water management system described in the passage?
A. Because the system was centralized, it allowed political control over a widely scattered population.
B. The knowledge required to design and maintain the system became the pretext for Maya elites’ political authority.
C. By selectively limiting access to water, Maya elites used the system to curb challenges to their authority
D. The system is not sufficient to explain the sources of centralized political power in all parts of the Maya region
E. The system’s continued maintenance required political authorities to exert control over an increasing proportion of economic resources.
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
2. According to the passage, which of the following is true of the water management systems in the central and southern Maya Lowlands?
A. They were implemented in part because of the prevailing pattern of rainfall.
B. They were an integral part of lowland cities’ architecture.
C. They were needed because of insufficient resources such as ponds, rivers and lakes in the lowlands.
Analysis 答案：D ABC
Although the passenger pigeons, now extinct, were abundant in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century America, archaeological studies at twelfth-century Cahokian sites in the present day United States examined household food trash and found that traces of passenger pigeon were quite rare. Given that the sites were close to a huge passenger pigeon roost documented by John James Audubon in the nineteenth century and that Cahokians consumed almost every other animal protein source available, the archaeologists conducting the studies concluded the passenger pigeon population had once been very limited before increasing dramatically in post-Columbian America. Other archaeologists have criticized those conclusions on the grounds that passenger pigeon bones would not be likely to be preserved. But all the archaeological projects found plenty of bird bones and even tiny bones from fish.
1. The author of the passage mentions “tiny bones from fish” primarily in order to
A. explain why traces of passenger pigeon are rare at Cahokian sites
B. support a claim about the wide variety of animal proteins in the Cahokian diet
C. provide evidence that confirms a theory about the extinction of the passenger pigeon
D. cast doubt on the conclusion reached by the archaeologists who conducted the studies discussed in the passage
E. counter an objection to an interpretation of the data obtained from Cahokian sites
2. Which of the following, if true, would most call into question the reasoning of “the archaeologists conducting the studies”?
A. Audubon was unable to correctly identify twelfth-century Cahokian sites
B. Audubon made his observations before passenger pigeon populations began to decline.
C. Passenger pigeons would have been attracted to household food trash
D. Archaeologist have found passenger pigeon remains among food waste at eighteenth-century human settlements
E. Passenger pigeons tended not to roost at the same sites for very many generations
注意passenger pigeons是候鸽，homing pigeons是信鸽。
An influential early view held that ecosystems contain niches for a limited number of species and that competition for resources among species—whether native or nonnative invading ones—determines ecosystems’ species composition. However, factors other than competition often help explain invading species’ success. For example, the American grey squirrel, often cited as a classic example of competitively superior invading species, was introduced in England in 1876 and now thrives, while the native red squirrel population has declined. Although scientists have found gray squirrels to be more efficient foragers than red ones, they also note that even before the gray squirrel’s arrival, Britain’s red squirrel populations had a periodic tendency to die out, only to be subsequently reintroduced. Furthermore, many gray squirrels are silent carriers of a disease fatal to red squirrels.
1. It can be inferred that the author of the passage mentions the efficiency with which gray squirrels forage primarily in order to
A. identify a factor that explains a certain phenomenon
B. call attention to an inconsistency in a particular theory
C. suggest that competition cannot be the factor responsible for a particular outcome
D. acknowledge a fact that appears to support a view that the author intends to qualify
E. cite evidence that is not consistent with an early influential view about species competition
2. It can be inferred that the author of the passage would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about the “early view?”
A. It reflects a mistaken assumption about the means by which nonnative species are introduced into ecosystems.
B. Its basic premise is shown to be valid by the effect of American gray squirrels on Britain’s red squirrel population.
C. It presents a simplistic picture of the means by which species composition within ecosystems is determined.
D. It can effectively explain the formation of ecosystems that contain few species but cannot adequately account for the formation of complex ecosystems.
E. It understates the importance of competition as a factor determining species composition within ecosystems.
The Great Sphinx is a huge statue in Egypt that has a lion’s body with a man’s head. The face of the Sphinx has long been claimed to be that of pharaoh Khafre, who lived around 2600 B.C., but it cannot be: erosion patterns recently discovered on the lion’s legs can only have been caused by heavy rains, and the Sahara has not had heavy rains in over 10,000 years.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?
A. The face of the Sphinx bears a resemblance to the faces on certain stylized statues dating from both before and after the reign of Khafre.
B. Other erosion patterns that appear on the body of the Sphinx are of a sort that could be caused by wind and sand alone
C. Other than the Sphinx, there are no surviving sculptures that have been claimed to portray the face of Khafre.
D. In the last 10,000 years the climate of Egypt has been so dry that even rains that are not heavy have been extremely infrequent.
E. The face of the Sphinx is small relative to the rest of the head, indicating that the face may have been recarved long after the Sphinx was built.
W.E.B. Du Bois’ exhibit of African American history and culture at the 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle attracted the attention of a world of sociological scholarship whose value his work challenged. Du Bois believed that Spencerian sociologists failed in their attempts to gain greater understanding of human deeds because their work examined not deeds but theories and because they gathered data not to affect social progress but merely to theorize. In his exhibit, Du Bois sought to present cultural artifacts that would shift the focus of sociology from the construction of vast generalizations to the observation of particular, living individual elements of society and the working contributions of individual people to a vast functioning social structure.
1. The passage implies that Du Bois attributed which of the following beliefs to Spencerian sociologists?
A. Theorizing is important to the understanding of human actions
B. Vast generalizations have limited value.
C. Data gathering is a relatively unimportant part of sociological research.
D. Sociology should focus on the living elements of society rather than cultural artifacts.
E. Particulars are more important than universals.
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
2. The passage implies that Du Bois believed which of the following statements about sociology?
A. It should contribute to the betterment of society.
B. It should study what people actually do.
C. It should focus on how existing social structures determine individual behavior.
Analysis 答案：A AB
文科，文学评论类，Du Bois是常见话题人物。考察细节定位题，不需要做过度推断。 注意第一题出现了因果关系词attribute…to，所以要去原文定位，第五行出现because。
In the shallow end of Lake Tomwa, there are remains of numerous Jeffery pine trees that grew there during a lengthy drought. Researchers had believed that this drought lasted at least 150 years, but carbon dating reveals that pines were growing in the lake bed for only 120 years, from 1200 until 1320. Since the Jeffrey pines, which cannot survive in water, must have died at the end of the drought, the dating shows that the drought lasted less than 150 years.
The argument given relies on which of the following as an assumption?
A. No other species of tree started growing in the bed of Lake Tomwa after 1200.
B. No tree remains of any kind are present at the bottom of deeper parts of Lake Tomwa.
C. There was at least one tree in the lake bed that was alive for the entire period from 1200 to 1320.
D. There has not been a more recent drought that caused a drying up of the shallow end of the lake.
E. The shallow end of the lake had been dry for less than 30 years by the time Jeffrey pines started growing in the lake bed.