2019-07-17 15:23 供稿单位: 未知 责编:青岛朗阁 浏览次
摘要： 2019年7月14日的GRE考试顺利结束，在这为了帮助大家了解这次考试的考试内容，青岛朗阁GRE培训老师就为大家带来 2019年7月14日GRE阅读考题回顾 ，大家一起来看看吧。 GRE Test Review ( P ool ) Section：VERBAL- Reading Comprehension Arranger: Tammy Sun
GRE Test Review (Pool)
Section：VERBAL- Reading Comprehension
Arranger: Tammy Sun
Based on evidence from tree rings, pollen samples and other records, scientists have for a long time assumed that interglacials—warm interludes between ice ages—were as mild and uniform as the Holocene, the present interglacial, has been for all of its 8,000 to 10,000 years. But new research in Greenland has put this assumption into question.
Researchers on two teams, the Greenland Ice-Core Project (GRIP) and the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP2), have analyzed two different cylinders of ice, each about two miles in depth, pulled up from the Greenland ice sheet. Such ice cores trap gases, bits of dust, and other chemicals that were present in the snow that fell over Greenland for thousands of years and then became compressed into ice. By studying these components, scientists have obtained a detailed archive of many aspects of climate, including air temperatures, snowfall, and concentrations of greenhouses gases in the atmosphere.
Findings from the upper sections of the cores have confirmed what scientists already knew climate during the last ice age fluctuated rapidly. But scientists were astonished by findings from the lower sections of the GRIP core, which provided a close look at an interglacial period other than our own, the Eemian interglacial, a period that lasted from 135,000 to 115,000 years ago. Data from GRIP seem to indicate that the Eemian climate swung at least as wildly as the climate of ice age periods.
Researchers’ clues to the Eemian climate come from measurements of the ratios of two slightly different types of oxygen, isotopes oxygen-16 and oxygen-18, preserved in the GRIP core. These ratios register the fluctuations of air temperatures over the seasons and years. When the air was warm, vapor containing the heavier isotope, oxygen-18, condensed and formed precipitation, in the form of snow, more readily than did vapor containing oxygen-16. Thus, snow that fell during warmer periods contains proportionally more oxygen-18 than snow deposited during cold spells. Evidence of rapid climate shifts was also drawn from other sources, such as measurements of amounts of dust and calcium ions in the ice layers during cold periods: winds were strong, causing calcium-rich dust from loess deposits, which are composed of loose surface sediment, to blow across the ice sheet. Thus, differing amounts of dust in the layers also indicate changing climatic conditions.
However, finds from the lower section of GISP 2 do not confirm those of GRIP. The wild climate swings shown by GRIP in the last interglacial are not seen in the GISP2 core. According to a GISP 2 scientist, the weight of flowing glacial ice above has stressed the lower sections of both cores. This may have deformed the lower ice, disrupting its annual layers and thereby causing the discrepancy between the records. Still, some climatologists believe GRIP’s record may be the more reliable of the two. It was drilled closer to a location called the ice divide, where stresses would have been lower, they say.
1.The passage is primarily concerned with
A. refuting certain scientific theories about Earth’s climatic history
B. outlining new findings concerning Earth’s climate during ice ages
C. discussing new research that may challenge a long-held scientific assumption about Earth’s climatic history
D. describing the climatic changes that occurred when Earth moved from an ice age into an interglacial period
E. reconciling conflicting evidence concerning climatic changes.
2. Which of the following describes research that is most clearly analogous to the testing done by GRIP scientists?
A. Scientists studying the formation of the Sahara desert measure the rate of topsoil erosion in the region
B. Scientists seeking to determine the age of a particular fossil measure the percentage of its carbon atoms that have decayed
C. Scientists researching vision in flies measure and compare the amounts of vitamin A found in the retinas of several fly species.
D. Scientists investigating the development of life on Earth measure and compare the amount of oxygen used by various organisms along the evolutionary scale.
E. Scientists plotting the fluctuations in rainfall in the early rain forests measure the presence of certain gases trapped in tree rings of older trees.
3.According to the passage, which of the following is the most accurate statement of what scientists believed, prior to the GRIP findings, about Earth’s climate?
A. Over the course of Earth’s history, interglacials have become progressively milder
B. Earth’s overall climate has been generally mild since the planet’s formation
C. During both interglacials and ice ages, Earth’s climate has fluctuated violently.
D. During ice ages, Earth’s climate has been highly variable, whereas during interglacials it has been mild and stable.
E. During interglacials, Earth’s climate has been highly variable, whereas during ice ages it has been uniformly cold and icy.
4. The passage suggests that which of the following is most likely to have been true of the oxygen-16 and oxygen-18 isotopes found in the lower sections of the GRIP core?
A. There was significantly more isotope oxygen-18 than isotope oxygen-16 in the ice layers.
B. There was significantly more isotope oxygen-16 than isotope oxygen-18 in the ice layers.
C. Ratios of isotopes oxygen-18 and oxygen-16 varied in the ice layers.
D. Layers containing isotope oxygen-18 placed stress on the layers containing isotope oxygen-16, possibly distorting them.
E. Isotope oxygen-16, being lighter, was located mainly in the upper layers, whereas oxygen-18 had settled into the lower layers.
答案：C E D C
Exotic insect pests can produce both short-and long-term effects on forest ecosystems. Short-term effects include the disturbances directly associated with the action of the pest, which may cause the defoliation, loss of vigor, or death of trees. Long-term effects are primarily mediated by changes in tree species composition and the consequent alterations of forest structure, productivity, and nutrient uptake. Exotic pests are more efficient than most abiotic disturbances (e.g., fire or wind) at producing long-term changes in species composition. Pests often target specific tree species and, if they become established, they usually remain as permanent components of the ecosystem. Shifts in forest species composition ramify through the ecosystem in many ways because tree species have different, often unique properties.
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
1.The passage mentions which of the following as effects of exotic pests on forest ecosystems?
A. decreased vitality in trees
B. defoliation of trees
C. changes in forest structure
2. The author of the passage mentions the “unique properties” of tree species primarily in order to help explain
A. why pests tend to target specific tree species
B. why pests can have long-term effects on entire ecosystems
C. how pests contribute to shifts in forest species composition
D. how pests are able to become established in an ecosystem
E. how some tree species are able to withstand the effects of pests
In 1755 British writer Samuel Johnson published an acerbic letter to Lord Chesterfield rebuking his patron for neglect and declining further support. Johnson’s rejection of his patron’s belated assistance has often been identified as a key moment in the history of publishing, marking the end of the culture of patronage. However, patronage had been in decline for 50 years, yet would survive, in attenuated form, for another 50. Indeed, Johnson was in 1762 awarded a pension by the Crown—a subtle form of sponsorship, tantamount to state patronage. The importance of Johnson’s letter is not so much historical as emotional; it would become a touchstone for all who repudiated patrons and for all who embraced the laws of the marketplace.
1.The author of the passage mentions Johnson’s 1762 pension award in order to
A. reveal that Johnson remained consistent in his rebuke of Lord Chesterfield well after 1755
B. provide evidence for a general trend in the latter half of the eighteenth century of private patronage’s being replaced by state sponsorship
C. situate the debate over the end of patronage within the wider realm of eighteenth-century economic history
D. suggest that Johnson’s letter to Chesterfield was noticed by the Crown only years after it was published
E. emphasize that patronage still helped support Johnson’s writing after his letter to Chesterfield
2.Which of the following best describes the function of the highlighted phrase in the context of the passage as a whole? (patronage had been in decline for 50 years, yet would survive, in attenuated form, for another 50)
A. It points out the most obvious implications of Johnson’s letter to his patron.
B. It suggests a motivation for Johnson’s rejection of Chesterfield’ s patronage.
C. It provides information that qualifies the assertion that Johnson’s letter sharply defined of the end of a publishing era.
D. It provides a possible defense for Chesterfield’s alleged neglect of Johnson.
E. It refutes the notion the patrons are found primarily among the nobility.
3.The author of the passage mentions Johnson’s 1762 pension award in order to
A. provide a specific example of patronage’s surviving into the second half of the eighteenth century
B. emphasize that patronage still helped support Johnson’s writing after his letter to Chesterfield
C. provide evidence for a general trend in the later half of the eighteenth century of private patronage’s being replaced by state sponsorship
4.Which of the following statements about literary patronage may be inferred from the passage?
A. It was strongly defended by most patrons.
B. It was regulated by the state in Britain after 1762.
C. It had largely fallen out of favor by 1800.
答案：E C AB C
Shoreland County recently purchased an area of wilderness land in the county to prevent it from being developed. In doing so, the county has forfeited all future property taxes on this land. Property taxes are assessed on market value, and if developed, the land would have contributed significantly to the county’s overall annual tax revenue. Because of the purchase, therefore, overall annual tax revenue will be lower than it would have been if development had occurred.
Shoreland County recently purchased an area of wilderness land in the county to prevent it from being developed. In doing so, the county has forfeited all future property taxes on this land. Property taxes are 1.Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
A. The money the county would have had to expend for services to residences or industry developed on the wilderness land would have exceeded the tax revenue from the developed land.
B. The market value of undeveloped properties in Shoreland County will not increase significantly in the foreseeable future.
C. The property taxes received by Shoreland County from the previous owners of the wilderness area were insignificant relative to the county’s overall annual tax revenue.
D. Land near the area bought by the county will not increase significantly in market value as a result of being near wilderness that is protected from development.
E. Shoreland County will not in the foreseeable future prevent the development of any other land in the county.
前提条件类逻辑单题。文中说的是the county’s overall annual tax revenue，考虑的是整个县，所以选项中只有D考虑到了除了这块地之外的其他地。
During the Pleistocene epoch, several species of elephants isolated on islands underwent rapid dwarfing. This phenomenon was not necessarily confined to the Pleistocene, but may have occurred much earlier in the Southeastern Asian islands, although evidence is fragmentary. Several explanations are possible for this dwarfing. For example, islands often have not been colonized by large predators or are too small to hold viable predator populations. Once free from predation pressure, large body size is of little advantage to herbivores. Additionally, island habitats have limited food resources, a smaller body size and a need for fewer resources would thus be favored. Interestingly, the island rule is reversed for small mammals such as rodents, for which gigantism is favored under insular conditions.
1.The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. question the plausibility of one explanation sometimes offered for the dwarfing of certain species living on islands
B. argue that dwarfing of certain species living on islands occurred prior to the Pleistocene
C. cite evidence suggesting that dwarfing may have adverse consequences for some species living on islands
D. present some possible explanations for the dwarfing of certain species living on islands
E. contrast the effects of insular conditions on species with large body size and species with small body
2.According to the passage, which of the following statements about body size in mammals is true?
A. A large body is unfavorable to mammalian species’ survival under most conditions.
B. A large body tends to benefit small mammals living on islands.
C. For most herbivorous mammals, a large body size is easier to sustain in the absence of large predators.
D. Under most conditions, a small body is less beneficial to herbivorous mammals than to nonherbivorous mammals.
E. Among nonherbivorous mammals, a small body is more beneficial on an island than on a mainland.
Although the passenger pigeons, now extinct, were abundant in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century America, archaeological studies at twelfth-century Cahokian sites in the present day United States examined household food trash and found that traces of passenger pigeon were quite rare. Given that the sites were close to a huge passenger pigeon roost documented by John James Audubon in the nineteenth century and that Cahokians consumed almost every other animal protein source available, the archaeologists conducting the studies concluded the passenger pigeon population had once been very limited before increasing dramatically in post-Columbian America. Other archaeologists have criticized those conclusions on the grounds that passenger pigeon bones would not be likely to be preserved. But all the archaeological projects found plenty of bird bones and even tiny bones from fish.
1. The author of the passage mentions “tiny bones from fish” primarily in order to
A. explain why traces of passenger pigeon are rare at Cahokian sites
B. support a claim about the wide variety of animal proteins in the Cahokian diet
C. provide evidence that confirms a theory about the extinction of the passenger pigeon
D. cast doubt on the conclusion reached by the archaeologists who conducted the studies discussed in the passage
E. counter an objection to an interpretation of the data obtained from Cahokian sites
2. Which of the following, if true, would most call into question the reasoning of “the archaeologists conducting the studies”?
A. Audubon was unable to correctly identify twelfth-century Cahokian sites
B. Audubon made his observations before passenger pigeon populations began to decline.
C. Passenger pigeons would have been attracted to household food trash
D. Archaeologist have found passenger pigeon remains among food waste at eighteenth-century human settlements
E. Passenger pigeons tended not to roost at the same sites for very many generations
Analysis 答案：E E
Some researchers claim that cetaceans—whales and dolphins—have culture, which the researchers define as the ability to learn from one another. Skeptics, however, demand clear evidence that cetaceans can acquire new behaviors through some form of social learning, preferably clear-cut instances of imitation or teaching. But such evidence is difficult to obtain. While few people doubt that captive cetaceans are adept at imitation or that they reproduce behaviors taught by researchers, biologists seeking insight into cetaceans’ behavior in their natural habitats must rely on deduction rather than experiments. If members of a particular group share behaviors that do not result from genetic inheritance or environmental variation, then they have almost certainly learned them by watching, following, or listening to other animals.
1.Which of the following best describe the function of the highlighted sentence?
A. It identifies a factor that complicates biologists’ ability to draw conclusions about the behavior of cetaceans in their natural environments.
B. It illustrates the kind of deduction mentioned in the preceding sentence.
C. It explains why skeptics have remained unpersuaded by evidence that has been put forward in support of the claim that cetaceans have culture.
D. It introduces a claim that would be dismissed by both supporters and opponents of the view that cetaceans have culture.
E. It notes a previously overlooked factor that might shed light on the question of whether cetaceans have culture.
2.The passage suggests which of the following about captive cetaceans?
A. Whether they are engaged in social learning is a subject of disagreement among biologists.
B. Their ability to imitate new behaviors is more extensive than that of noncaptive cetaceans.
C. They exhibit few behaviors that have not also been observed in cetaceans in their natural habitats.
D. They appear to adopt new behaviors more quickly than noncaptive cetaceans.
E. They exhibit tendencies that suggest a capacity for the kind of behavior that qualifies as cultural.
Analysis 答案：B E
Sportfishers introduced the Zander, a type of perch, to Britain’s rivers and canals in the 1970s. Because zander eat large numbers of smaller fish, they have had a devastating effect on native fish populations. To protect the native fish, a government program removed a significant proportion of the zander from Britain’s waterways last year. Surprisingly, this year the loss of native fish to zander has been greater than before.
1.Which of the following, if true, would most help to explain the greater effect of zander on the native fish population?
A. The climate in Britain is very similar to the climate in regions to which zander are native.
B. Most of the zander removed were fully grown, and fully grown zander eat large numbers of smaller zander.
C. Every year a large number of zander are caught by sportfisher in Britain’s waterway.
D. Previous government programs designed to remove nonnative species from Britain’s waterways have failed.
E. Zander are just one of several nonnative fish that prey on the other fish found in Britain’s waterway.
原因解释型逻辑单题。要解释的是除掉对native fish威胁最大的zander后为什么反而native fish死的数量更多了。B提供了一个额外的原因，即出去的都是成年zander，而它们吃的是更小的zander，跟native fish没关系
A hoard of coins recently unearthed at an ancient Carthagian site bear an image of a face in profile with what appears to be a large mole on the cheek. Pointing out that an artist would be unlikely to include such a specific detail in a generalized portrayal of a face, some archaeologists have concluded that these coins portray an actual individual rather than an idealized type. However, this conclusion is unwarranted, since ______.
1.Which of the following most logically completes the argument?
A. archaeologists cannot determine the actual identity of the individual portrayed just from the likeness that appears on the coins
B. it cannot be established with certainty that Carthagian artists were on the whole less skillful at portraying human face than artists of other cultures
C. none of the other designs of Carthagian coins that have been discovered features a face with a mole on it
D. in ancient times it was quite common for the money circulated in a city or country to include coins that originated in other jurisdictions.
E. the relatively soft metal used for Carthagian coin molds sometimes resulted in the production of series of coins with unintended bumps