2019-06-17 13:34 供稿单位: 未知 责编:青岛朗阁 浏览次
GRE Test Review (Pool)
Section：VERBAL- Reading Comprehension
Arranger: Tammy Sun
Some historians question the widely held belief that continually improving education led to gradual African American empowerment in the southern United States from the late nineteenth century through the mid-twentieth century. They note that the development of Black educational institutions in the segregated South was never rapid or steady: disparities between Black and White schools sometimes grew in the early decades of the twentieth century. And African Americans’ educational gains did not bring commensurate economic gains. Starting in the 1940s, even as Black and White schools in the South moved steadily toward equality, Black southerners remained politically marginalized and experienced systematic job discrimination. Although Black schools had achieved near parity with White schools in per capita spending and teachers’ salaries by 1965, African Americans’ income still lagged behind that of Whites. Nonetheless, educational progress did contribute toward economic and political empowerment. African Americans’ campaigns to support Black schools fostered a sense of community, nurtured political determination, and often increased literacy. More significantly, politically outspoken Black newspapers achieved record circulation during the 1940s, just as the literacy rate among African Americans approached 90 percent. Finally, the leadership of the Civil Rights movement of the 1960s was composed largely of graduates of Black colleges.
1.The author of the passage refers to the fact that “disparities between Black and White schools sometimes grew in the early decades of the twentieth century” most likely in order to
A. support the argument that the economic struggles of southern Blacks were largely due to educational inequalities
B. give an example of the differences between Black schools in the early part of the twentieth century and Black schools starting in the 1940s
C. illustrate the unevenness of the progress made by Black schools in the southern United States
D. help explain why Black remained politically marginalized and experienced systematic job discrimination in the segregated South
E. provide evidence that educational progress was a precondition for economic progress in the segregated South
2. Which of the following best describes the purpose of the highlighted sentence?
A. It clarifies a point introduced in the preceding sentence.
B. It reiterates a point introduced in the first sentence of the passage.
C. It questions the accuracy of some of the evidence used to support the argument of the historians.
D. It introduces a perspective that runs contrary to the view of those who endorse the “belief.”
E. It qualifies the interpretation made by the historians.
3. The passage suggests which of the following about the Civil Rights movement?
A. It gave rise to a rapid increase in the number of Black newspapers published in the South.
B. Its political effectiveness was greatly enhanced by the increased circulation of Black newspapers.
C. Its leadership benefited from improvements in education for African Americans.
D. It was the force primarily responsible for increasing per capita spending in Black schools.
E. It was responsible for changing many historians’ view of the relation between education and African American empowerment.
答案：C E C
The revival of mural painting that has occurred in San Francisco since the 1970s, especially among the Chicano population of the city’s Mission District, has marked differences from its social realist forerunner in Mexico and the United States some 40 years earlier. Rather than being government sponsored and limited to murals on government buildings, the contemporary mural movement sprang from the people themselves, with murals appearing on community buildings and throughout college campuses. Perhaps the biggest difference, however, is the process. In earlier twentieth-century Mexico, murals resulted from the vision of individual artists. But today’s murals are characteristically the products of artists working with local residents on design and creation.
Such community engagement is characteristic of the Chicano art movement as a whole, which evolved from the same foundations as the Chicano civil rights movement of the mid-1960s. Both were a direct response to the needs of Chicanos in the United States, who were fighting for the right to adequate education, political empowerment, and decent working conditions. Artists joined other cultural workers in making political statements and played a key role in taking these statements to the public. They developed collectives and established cultural centers that functioned as the public-relations arm of the Chicano sociopolitical movement.
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. argue for the superiority of a style of art
B. consider the impact of an art movement
C. describe the political content of a certain works of art
D. detail the characteristic style of an art movement
E. place an art movement in its historical context
2. According to the passage, which of the following statements about the “cultural centers” is true?
A. They were the venue where many later leaders of the Chicano civil rights movement first became politically active.
B. Though later widespread, they originated in San Francisco area.
C. Springing up in a number of communities, they initially had largely apolitical goals centered on art instruction.
D. They constituted the nucleus from which the Chicano civil rights movement originated.
E. Founded by artists, they provided support for the Chicano civil rights movement.
3. Which of the following best describes the relationship between the first paragraph and the second paragraph of the passage?
A. The first focuses on the mural artists as individuals; the second, on their actions as a group.
B. The first compares the mural revival with an earlier artistic movement; the second describes the context contemporary to the revival.
C. The first defines the revival by distinguishing it from an earlier artistic movement; the second addresses the political goals of both the revival and its forerunner.
D. The first presents an apparently plausible account of the relationship between the revival and is forerunner, the second calls that account into question.
E. The first is concerned with the artistic aims and ambitions behind the San Francisco murals; the second considers their political significance.
答案：E E B
Analyzing levels of proportional representation of American Indians in state and local government jobs is important for several reasons. First, the basic idea underlying the theory of representative bureaucracy is that the demographic composition of bureaucracy should mirror the demographic composition of the general public. This is because in addition to its symbolic value, increased access to managerial position may lead to greater responsiveness on the part of policy makers to the policy interests of traditionally disadvantaged groups such as American Indians. Second, the focus on higher level jobs in bureaucracies (as opposed to non-managerial positions) is especially important because managerial positions represent a major source of economic progress for members of traditionally disadvantaged groups, as these jobs confer good salaries, benefits, status, security, and mobility. Third, it is important to know if there has been growth in the American Indian share of more desirable public sector positions over the last two decades. For instance, Peterson and Duncan argue that the population and power of American Indians have been growing in certain states. Peterson and Duncan also suggest that this growth may reflect the possibility that American Indian population are becoming more active in nontraditional areas of politics, assimilating into mainstream culture, and securing with greater frequency leadership positions in non-tribal government.
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. summarize a demographic trend over time
B. present findings on a demographic group
C. analyze the demographic composition of a type of job
D. explain the need for particular social research
E. argue for the implementation of a social policy
2. Which of the following best describes the function of the highlighted sentence in the context of the passage as whole?
A. It hypothesizes a phenomenon that might explain a point made in the preceding sentence.
B. It provides evidence that undermines that assertion made in the first sentence.
C. It offers a projection regarding the development of a trend mentioned earlier in the passage.
D. It presents an interpretation of a discrepancy noted earlier in the passage.
E. It proposed an implementation of a policy mentioned in the preceding sentence.
3.The passage suggests which of the following regarding “access to managerial positions” for disadvantaged groups?
A. This access is only significant when the percentage of disadvantaged group members in managerial positions mirrors the percent of that group in the general public.
B. This access is largely the result of policy decisions made response to interest of those groups.
C. This access has meaning apart from any policy benefits it confer on those groups.
D. This access often creates increased access to non-managerial position for those groups.
E. The extent of this access tends to be similar across different disadvantaged groups.
答案：D C C
Mary Barton, particularly in its early chapters, is a moving response to the suffering of the industrial worker in the England of the 1840s. What is most impressive about the book is the intense and painstaking effort made by the author, Elizabeth Gaskell, to convey the experience of everyday life in working class homes. Her method is partly documentary in nature: the novel includes such features as a carefully annotate reproduction of dialect, the exact details of food prices in an account of a tea party, an itemized description of the furniture of the Bartons’ living room, and a transcription (again annotated) of the ballad “The Oldham Weaver”. The interest of this record is considerable, even though the method has a slightly distancing effect.
As a member of the middle class, Gaskell could hardly help approaching working-class life as an outside observer and a reporter, and the reader of the novel is always conscious of this fact. But there is genuine imaginative re-creation in her accounts of the walk in Green Heys Fields, of tea at the Bartons’ house, and of John Barton and his friend’s discovery of the starving family in the cellar in the chapter “Poverty and Death.” Indeed, for a similarly convincing re-creation of such families’ emotions and responses (which are more crucial than the material details on which the mere reporter is apt to concentrate), the English novel had to wait 60 years for the early writing of D. H. Lawrence. If Gaskell never quite conveys the sense of full participation that would completely authenticate this aspect of Mary Bartons, she still brings to these scenes an intuitive recognition of feelings that has its own sufficient conviction.
The chapter “Old Aice’s History” brilliantly dramatizes the situation of that early generation of workers brought from the villages and the countryside to the urban industrial centers. The account of Job Leigh, the weaver and naturalist who is devoted to the study of biology, vividly embodies one kind of response to an urban industrial environment: an affinity for living things that hardens, by its very contrast with its environment, into a kind of crankiness. The early chapters—about factory workers walking out in spring into Green Heys Fields, about Alice Wilson, remembering in her cellar the twig-gathering for brooms in the native village that she will never again see, about job Leigh, intent on his impaled insects—capture the characteristic responses of a generation to the new and crushing experience of industrialism. The other early chapters eloquently portray the development of the instinctive cooperation with each other that was already becoming an important tradition among workers.
1. It can be inferred from examples given in the last paragraph of the passage that which of the following was part of “the new and crushing experience of industrialism” for many members of the English working class in the nineteenth century.
A. extortionate food prices
B. geographical displacement
C. hazardous working conditions
D. alienation from fellow workers
E. dissolution of family ties
2. It can be inferred that the author of the passage believes that Mary Barton might have been an even better novel if Gaskell
A. concentrated on the emotions of a single character
B. made no attempt to re-create experiences of which she had no firsthand knowledge
C. made no attempt to reproduce working-class dialects
D. grown up in an industrial city
E. managed to transcend her position as an outsider
3. Which of the following best describes the author’s attitude toward Gaskell’s use of the method of documentary record in Mary Barton?
A. uncritical enthusiasm
B. unresolved ambivalence
C. qualified approval
D. resigned acceptance
E. mild irritation
4. Which of the following is most closely analogous to Job Leigh in Mary Barton, as that character is described in the passage?
A. an entomologist who collected butterflies as a child
B. a small-town attorney whose hobby is nature photography
C. a young man who leaves his family’s dairy farm to start his own business
D. a city dweller who raises exotic plants on the roof of his apartment building
E. a union organizer who works in a textile mill under dangerous conditions
Analysis B E C D
本年度考频: 2019.03.17, 2019.06.14
In 1995, after an absence of nearly 70 years, wolves were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park. During the wolf-free era, heavy browsing of aspen trees by elk populations spelled doom not only for trees themselves but for a host of other creatures dependent on them, such as beavers, whose population in Yellowstone crashed after wolves were removed. Without beavers to create ponds, wetland ecosystems--aquatic plants, amphibians, birds--were devastated. When wolves returned, grazers and browsers resumed normal patterns of behaviors, preferring safer, open areas over the dense cover and streamsides where carnivores can lurk. Keeping elk wary and on the move, wolves gave aspen and other young trees the opportunity to grow and become reestablished.
1.The passage asserts which of the following about beaver populations in Yellowstone?
A. They have rebounded since the reintroduction of wolves.
B. They were adversely affected by the feeding habits of elk population.
C. They increased during the period when wolves disappeared from the park.
D. They have historically had an adverse effect on the park's wetland ecosystems.
E. They are essential to the health of the park's aspen trees.
2.The author would most likely agree with which of the following claims about the reintroduction of wolves to Yellowstone?
A. It indirectly harmed some of the park's amphibian habitats
B. It reduced the number of elk feeding along streamsides
C. It led to greater species diversity among the park's grazers and browsers.
D. It significantly increased competition for food among the park's carnivores.
E. It fostered the resurgence of tree species that once flourished in the park's open areas.
Analysis 答案：B B