2019-06-24 16:23 供稿单位: 未知 责编:青岛朗阁 浏览次
GRE Test Review (Pool)
Section：VERBAL- Reading Comprehension
Arranger: Sherry Zhang
David Belasco’s 1912 Broadway production of The Governors Lady created a sensation with a scene set in a Childs cafeteria, a chain restaurant that was an innovator in food standardization and emblematic of modern everyday life. While Belasco’s meticulously detailed reproduction of an immediately recognizable setting impressed the public, it was derided by progressive theater critics who championed the New Stagecraft theories of European artists like Max Reinhardt. The New Stagecraft rejected theatrical literalism; it drew inspiration from the subjectivity and minimalism of modern painters, advocating simplified sets designed to express a dramatic texts central ideas. Such critics considered Belasco a craftsman who merely captured surface realities: a true artist eliminated the inessential to create more meaningful, expressive stage images.
1. The author of the passage implies which of the following about Belasco’s production of The Governors Lady?
A. It was dismissed by certain theater critics who misunderstood Belasco’s conception of modernity.
B. It was intended to marshal elements of the New Stagecraft to serve Belasco’s predilection for realistic staging.
C. It demonstrated that theatrical literalism could be used effectively to express a dramatic texts central ideas.
D. It elicited responses that reflected a discrepancy between popular tastes in entertainment and the tastes of progressive theater critics.
E. It relied on the appeal of an impressively realistic stage set to compensate for weaknesses in other aspects of the production.
2. It can be inferred that the theater critics would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about the theatrical productions?
A. Theatrical productions that seek to eliminate the inessential also often eliminate theatrical elements that enhance the expressiveness of a play.
B. Theatrical productions that faithfully recreate the visual details of everyday life are unlikely to do justice to a good play’s central ideas.
C. Theatrical productions that employ the minimalism characteristic of modern paintings may have greater appeal to modern audiences than productions that rely on theatrical literalism.
D. Theatrical productions that aim to represent truths about modern life should not attempt to employ elements of the New Stagecraft.
E. Theatrical productions that attempt to produce authentic-looking scenes of everyday reality are likely to fail in that goal because of the theaters inherent limitations.
Analysis 答案：D B
重点词汇：do justice to 更好地体现，使价值充分发挥
Architectural morphology is the study of how shifting cultural and environmental conditions produce changes in an architectural form. When applied to the mission churches of New Mexico exemplifying seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Spanish colonial architecture in what is now the southwestern United States, architectural morphology reveals much about how Native American culture transformed the traditional European church architecture of the Spanish missionaries who hoped to convert Native Americans to Christianity.
Many studies of these mission churches have carefully documented the history and design of their unique architectural form, most attribute the churches’ radical departure from their sixteenth-century European predecessors to local climate and a less-mechanized building technology. Certainly, the limitations imposed by manual labor and the locally available materials of mud-brick and timber necessitated a divergence from the original European church model. However, the emergence of a church form suited to life in the Southwest was rooted in something more fundamental than material and technique. The new architecture resulted from cultural forces in both the Spanish colonial and indigenous Native American societies, each with competing ideas about form and space and different ways of conveying these ideas symbolically.
For example, the mission churches share certain spatial qualities with the indigenous kiva, a round, partly subterranean room used by many Southwest Native American communities for important rituals. Like the kiva it was intended to replace, the typical mission church had thick walls of adobe (sun-dried earth and straw), a beaten-earth floor, and one or two small windows. In deference to European custom, the ceilings of these churches were higher than those of the traditional kiva. However, with the limited lighting afforded by their few small windows, these churches still suggest the kiva's characteristically low, boxlike, earth-hugging interior. Thus, although pragmatic factors of construction may have contributed to the shape of the mission churches, as earlier studies suggest, the provision of a sacred space consistent with indigenous traditions may also have been an important consideration in their design.
The continued viability of the kiva itself in Spanish mission settlements has also been underestimated by historians. Freestanding kivas discovered in the ruins of European-style missionary communities have been explained by some historians as examples of “superposition”. Under this theory, Christian domination over indigenous faiths is dramatized by surrounding the kiva with Christian buildings. However, as James Ivey points out, such superposition was unlikely, since historical records indicate that most Spanish missionaries, arriving in the Southwest with little or no military support, wisely adopted a somewhat conciliatory attitude toward the use of the kiva at least initially. This fact, and the careful, solitary placement of the kiva in the center of the mission-complex courtyards, suggests an intention to highlight the importance of the kiva rather than to diminish it.
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. correct some misinterpretations about the development of an architectural form
B. compare the traditional church architectures of two different cultures
C. examine the influence of a religious architectural style on secular buildings
D. explain the nature of the contrast between two different architectural styles
E. trace the European roots of an architectural style used in the United Stales
2. The passage suggests that the indicated historians regarded the placement of kivas in the midst of Christian buildings as which of the following?
A. exemplary of an arrangement of religious buildings typical of a kind of Native American architecture common prior to the arrival of the Spanish
B. largely responsible for the evolution of a distinctive Spanish mission architectural style
C. indicative of the Spanish missionaries’ desire to display an attitude of acceptance toward the kiva
D. symbolic of the controversy among Spanish missionaries in New Mexico regarding their treatment of the indigenous population
E. reflective of the Spanish missionary’s desire to diminish the kiva's importance
3. Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the argument about the Spanish missionaries’ attitude toward the kiva?
A. The period of most intensive settlement by Spanish missionaries in the Southwest occurred before the period in which the mission churches of New Mexico were built.
B. There are no traces of kivas in Spanish mission settlements that were protected by a large military presence.
C. Little of the secular Spanish colonial architecture of the Southwest of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries is predominantly European in style.
D. Some Spanish missionary communities of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were attached to Spanish military installations.
E. New Mexico contains by far the largest concentration of Spanish mission-style church architecture in the United States.
4. According to the passage, the building techniques prevailing in the Southwest during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries played a role in which of the following?
A. preventing missionaries in the Southwest from duplicating traditional European churches
B. influencing missionaries in the Southwest to incorporate a freestanding kiva into certain mission settlements
C. causing missionaries in the Southwest to limit the building of churches to New Mexico only
D. jeopardizing the viability of Spanish religious settlements throughout the Southwest
E. encouraging many missionaries in the Southwest to reexamine the continued viability of a highly ceremonial European religious tradition
When studying shrimp feeding from hydro-thermal vents at the bottom of the ocean, biologists were surprised that the shrimps’ reproductive cycles followed seasonal patterns. Far beyond the reach of sunlight, and with food abundant around the vents all year round, why should such animals reproduce seasonally? The answer might involve their offspring, which in their larval form drift in the currents to colonize new vents. The larvae must feed during their trip, and their springtime release coincides with a peak in algae raining down from surface waters. So far, researchers have found no evidence of seasonal breeding among vent-dwelling species that provide their offspring with yolk to sustain them or among vent-dwelling species found in areas of the ocean with not seasonal algae blooms.
Which of the following best describes the function of the highlighted sentence?
A. It casts doubt on the accuracy of earlier observations of seasonal breeding among shrimp
species living near hydro-thermal vents.
B. It undermines the explanation proposed for seasonal breeding among some shrimp species living near hydro-thermal vents.
C. It suggests that alternative theories are needed to explain seasonal breeding among shrimp species living near hydro-thermal vents.
D. It describes the survival benefits to shrimp of mating in parts of the ocean where algae blooms rain down abundantly.
E. It supports the explanation proffered for the seasonal breeding observed among some shrimp species living near hydro-thermal vents.
考频：2019.03.17, 2019.04.04, 2019.06.02,2018年考过两次
The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1868, prohibits state governments from denying citizens the “equal protection of the laws.” Although precisely what the framers of the amendment meant by this equal protection clause remains unclear, all interpreters agree that the framers’ immediate objective was to provide a constitutional warrant for the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which guaranteed the citizenship of all persons born in the United States and subject to United States jurisdiction. This declaration, which was echoed in the text of the Fourteenth Amendment, was designed primarily to counter the Supreme Court’s ruling in Dred Scott v. Sandford that Black people in the United States could be denied citizenship. The act was vetoed by President Andrew Johnson, who argued that the Thirteenth Amendment, which abolished slavery, did not provide Congress with the authority to extend citizenship and equal protection to the freed slaves. Although Congress promptly overrode Johnson’s veto, supporters of the act sought to ensure its constitutional foundations with the passage of the Fourteenth Amendment.
The broad language of the amendment strongly suggests that its framers were proposing to write into the Constitution not a laundry list of specific civil rights but a principle of equal citizenship that forbids organized society from treating any individual as a member of an inferior class. Yet for the first eight decades of the amendment’s existence, the Supreme Court’s interpretation of the amendment betrayed this ideal of equality. In the Civil Rights Cases of 1883, for example, the Court invented the “state action” limitation, which asserts that “private” decisions by owners of public accommodations and other commercial business to segregate their facilities are insulated form the reach of the Fourteenth Amendment’s guarantee of equal protection under the law.
After the Second World War, a judicial climate more hospitable to equal protection claims culminated in the Supreme Court;s ruling in Brown v. Board of Education that racially segregated schools violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Two doctrines embraced by the Supreme Court during this period extended the amendment’s reach. First, the Court required especially strict scrutiny of legislation that employed a “suspect classification,” meaning discrimination against a group on grounds that could be construed as racial. This doctrine has broadened the application of the Fourteenth Amendment to other, nonracial forms of discrimination, for while some justices have refused to find any legislative classification other than race to be constitutionally disfavored, most have been receptive to arguments that at least some nonracial discriminations, sexual discrimination in particular, are “suspect” and deserve this heightened scrutiny by the courts. Second, the Court relaxed the state action limitation on the Fourteenth Amendment, bringing new forms of private conduct within the amendment’ s reach.
1. Which of the following best describes the main idea of the passage?
A. By presenting a list of specific rights, framers of the Fourteenth Amendment were attempting to provide a constitutional basis for broad judicial protection of the principle of equal citizenship
B. Only after the Supreme Court adopted the suspect classification approach to reviewing potentially discrimination legislation was the applicability of the Fourteenth Amendment extended to include sexual discrimination
C. Not until after the Second World War did the Supreme Court begin to interpret the Fourteenth Amendment in a manner consistent with the principle of equal citizenship that it express.
D. Interpreters of the Fourteenth Amendment have yet to reach consensus with regard to what its framers meant by the equal protection clause
E. Although the reluctance of judges to extend the reach of the Fourteenth Amendment to nonracial discrimination has betrayed the principle of equal citizenship, the Supreme Court’s use of the state action limitation to insulate private activity fro the amendment’s reach has been more harmful.
2. The passage suggests that the principle effect of the state action limitation was to
A. allow some discriminatory practices to continue unimpeded by the Fourteenth Amendment
B. influence the Supreme Court’s ruling in Brown v. Board of Education
C. provide expanded guidelines describing prohibited actions
D. prohibit states from enacting laws that violated the intent of the Civil Rights Act of 1866
E. shift to state government the responsibility for enforcement of laws prohibiting discriminatory practices
3. The author’s position regarding the intent of the framers of the Fourteenth Amendment would be most seriously undermined if which of the following were true?
A. The framers had anticipated state action limitations as they are described in the passage.
B. The framers had merely sought to prevent discriminatory acts by federal officials.
C. The framers were concerned that the civil rights act of 1866 would be overturned by the Supreme Court.
D. The framers were aware that the phrase “equal protection of the laws” had broad implications.
E. The framers believed that racial as well as non-racial forms of discrimination were unacceptable.
4. According to the passage, the original proponents of the Fourteenth Amendment were primarily concerned with
A. detailing the rights afforded by the principle of equal citizenship
B. providing support in the Constitution for equal protection for all citizens of the United States
C. closing a loophole that could be used to deny individuals the right to sue for enforcement of their civil rights
D. asserting that the civil rights protect by the Constitution included nonracial discrimination as well as racial discrimination
E. granting state government broader discretion in interpreting the Civil Rights Act in 1866
5. The author implies that the Fourteenth Amendment might not have been enacted if
A. congress’ authority with regard to legislating civil rights had not been challenged
B. the framers has anticipated the Supreme Courts ruling in Brown v. Board of Education
C. the framers had believed that it would be used in deciding cases of discrimination involving non-racial groups
D. most state governments had been willing to protect citizens’ civil rights
E. its essential elements had not been implicit in the Thirteenth Amendment
6. According to the passage, which of the following most accurately indicates the sequence of the events listed below?
Ⅰ. civil rights act of 1866
Ⅱ. Dred Scott v. Sandford
Ⅲ. Fourteenth Amendment
Ⅳ. Veto by President Johnson
A. Ⅰ Ⅱ Ⅲ Ⅳ
B. Ⅰ Ⅳ Ⅱ Ⅲ
C. Ⅰ Ⅳ Ⅲ Ⅱ
D. Ⅱ Ⅰ Ⅳ Ⅲ
E. Ⅲ Ⅱ Ⅰ Ⅳ
7. Which of the following can be inferred about the second of the two doctrines (highlighted sentence) of the passage?
A. It caused some justice to rule that all types of discrimination are prohibited by the Constitution.
B. It shifted the focus of the Supreme Court from racial to nonracial discrimination.
C. It narrowed the concern of the Supreme Court to legislation that employed a suspect classification.
D. It caused legislators who were writing new legislation to reject language that could be construed as permitting racial discrimination.
E. It made it more difficult for commercial business to practice racial discrimination.
Many theorists now doubt that heat loss from Earth’s core and radioactive decay are sufficient by themselves to produce all the energy driving the tectonic plates whose movements have helped shaped Earth’s surface. This leaves a loose end in current geological theory. Herbert Shaw argues that because scientists have underestimated the input of substantial amounts of energy from extraterrestrial impactors (asteroids and comets striking Earth), they have difficulty accounting for the difference between the quantity of energy produced from sources intrinsic to Earth and that involved in plate tectonics. Whereas most geologists have treated the addition of energy through the bombardment of Earth’s surface by such impactors as aprocess separate and independent from the movement of Earth’s tectonic plates, Shaw asserts that these processes are indivisible. Shaw’s revolutionary “open-system” view recognizes a continuum between terrestrial and extraterrestrial dynamics, whereas modern plate tectonic theory, like the classical geology developed during the nineteenth century, is founded on the view that Earth’s geological features have changed through gradual, regular processes intrinsic to Earth, without reference to unique catastrophic events. Classical geology borrowed a decisive, if unspoken, premise from Newton—the independence of Earth’s processes from any astronomical context.
1. The author’s primary purpose is to
A. identify the influences informing a particular geological theory about the processes that have shaped Earth’s surface
B. identify differences between two views of the extraterrestrial impactors and argue that the phenomenon has influenced the development of plate tectonic theory
C. argue that an explanation is based on a dubious evidence and propose an alternative explanation
D. discuss an explanation and place that explanation under theoretical context
E. suggest that apparent discrepancy poses a serious problem for a particular theory that many have believed
2. The author of the passage mentions the “continuum” in order to
A. point out a relationship between plate tectonics and the nineteenth-century geology
B. explain how a theory of Newton’s could influence geology and plate tectonic theory.
C. distinguish between two sources of energy that contributed to the development of Earth’ssurface.
D. point out a similarity between the surface of impactors and the surface of Earth.
E. identify a feature of Shaw’s view that deviates from current scientific theories.
3. The passage suggests which of the following about tectonic theory?
A. It has led scientists to overlook an important contribution to classical geologists from Newton.
B. It has been more successful than was classical geology in accounting for heat loss from Earth’s core.
C. It is based on premise about Earth’s processes discerned in Newton’s thought.
D. It has correctly explained the effects of extraterrestrial impactors on Earth’s surface.
E. It corrects a fundamental flaw in classical geology.
Analysis 答案：D E C
The Great Sphinx is a huge statue in Egypt that has a lion’s body with a man’s head. The face of the Sphinx has long been claimed to be that of pharaoh Khafre, who lived around 2600 B.C., but it cannot be: erosion patterns recently discovered on the lion’s legs can only have been caused by heavy rains, and the Sahara has not had heavy rains in over 10,000 years.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?
A. The face of the Sphinx bears a resemblance to the faces on certain stylized statues dating from both before and after the reign of Khafre.
B. Other erosion patterns that appear on the body of the Sphinx are of a sort that could be caused by wind and sand alone
C. Other than the Sphinx, there are no surviving sculptures that have been claimed to portray the face of Khafre.
D. In the last 10,000 years the climate of Egypt has been so dry that even rains that are not heavy have been extremely infrequent.
E. The face of the Sphinx is small relative to the rest of the head, indicating that the face may have been recarved long after the Sphinx was built.
In 1995, after an absence of nearly 70 years, wolves were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park. During the wolf-free era, heavy browsing of aspen trees by elk populations spelled doom not only fro trees themselves but for a host of other creatures dependent on them, such as beavers, whose population in Yellowstone crashed after wolves were removed. Without beavers to create ponds, wetland ecosystems--aquatic plants, amphibians, birds--were devastated. When wolves returned, grazers and browsers resumed normal patterns of behaviors, preferring safer, open areas over the dense cover and streamsides where carnivores can lurk. Keeping elk wary and on the move, wolves gave aspen and other young trees the opportunity to grow and become reestablished.
1. The passage asserts which of the following about beaver populations in Yellowstone?
A. They have rebounded since the reintroduction of wolves.
B. They were adversely affected by the feeding habits of elk population.
C. They increased during the period when wolves disappeared from the park.
D. They have historically had an adverse effect on the park's wetland ecosystems.
E. They are essential to the health of the park's aspen trees.
2. The author would most likely agree with which of the following claims about the reintroduction of wolves to Yellowstone?
A. It indirectly harmed some of the park's amphibian habitats
B. It reduced the number of elk feeding along streamsides
C. It led to greater species diversity among the park's grazers and browsers.
D. It significantly increased competition for food among the park's carnivores.
E. It fostered the resurgence of tree species that once flourished in the park's open areas.
When on an airplane, Consuelo never enjoys movies that have been widely recommended because the poor quality of the picture spoils her enjoyment. Since in no circumstances does she ever enjoy movies that have been widely derided, it follows that she never enjoys movies on airplanes.
Which of the following, if true, would enable the conclusion of the argument to be properly drawn?
A. The only place where Consuelo enjoys widely recommended movies is a movie theater.
B. Widely recommended movies are never shown on airplane.
C. If a movie shown on an airplane is not widely derided, then it is invariable widely recommended.
D. If the picture quality of the movies shown on airplanes was better, Consuelo would enjoy the widely recommended movies.
E. Some movies are neither widely recommended nor widely derided.